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General urine analysis

Before taking the test, it is advisable to consult with a physician prescribing a referral, which will explain in detail how to pass a urine test.

To obtain the most reliable result of the analysis, you should follow the rules of preparation and collection of material, as well as its delivery to the laboratory.

With improper preparation and delivery of urine the results of the analysis are distorted, which makes it necessary to re-examine, and in some cases can lead to diagnostic errors.

Terms of preparation for the analysis

It is undesirable (allowed if there is an urgent need) to pass urine for analysis:

  • during the week after cystoscopy or urethroscopy,
  • during acute respiratory or other diseases accompanied by fever,
  • during menstruation.

If you need to pass urine for analysis, women during menstruation are encouraged to use a hygienic tampon to avoid menstrual flow from entering the collected material. If there is no hygienic tampon, it can be made from cotton wool or gauze.

The day before the study should:

  • refrain from sex
  • avoid excessive physical and psycho-emotional stress,
  • do not drink alcohol
  • do not use mineral water
  • exclude from the diet fruits and vegetables that can stain urine (cranberries, beets, carrots),
  • do not take vitamin preparations
  • to agree with the attending physician on the possibility of taking drugs or the need for their cancellation.

Before taking the test, it is not recommended to use more or less fluid than usual and change dietary habits, except for the specified restrictions.

It is necessary to prepare in advance the container for collecting urine. It is advisable to use disposable plastic containers specifically designed for this purpose. They can be purchased at the pharmacy, and in some laboratories they are issued to the patient when they are registered for a study. In the absence of a special container, it is possible to use previously thoroughly washed and sterilized glass jars with a tight lid (household plastic containers are not suitable for this purpose).

General analysis of urine for pregnant women is carried out regularly until delivery, since it allows detecting the development of various types of pathologies and taking the necessary measures in a timely manner.

In different laboratories, the conditions for preparation and delivery of material may vary, including the fact that a number of laboratories do not accept material for research in any other container except a special container, therefore it is advisable to ask in advance about the rules for taking urine for analysis in the laboratory where give up analysis.

Before collecting urine, it is necessary to have a toilet of the external genitalia, but it is not recommended to use antibacterial soap for this purpose. During the filling of the container it is impossible to touch it to the genitals.

Collecting urine for analysis in adults usually does not cause difficulties, but for young children this can be difficult. For babies in pharmacies, special urinals are sold, which greatly facilitate the task.

With improper preparation and delivery of urine the results of the analysis are distorted, which makes it necessary to re-examine, and in some cases can lead to diagnostic errors.

Urine tests

Urine is a biological fluid that is produced by the kidneys when filtering the blood and removes filtered substances from the body. The amount of urine excreted per day is called daily diuresis.

Urinalysis makes it possible to assess the state of human health, clarify the diagnosis, as well as monitor the course of treatment. In addition, urine analysis should be regularly taken to women during pregnancy. General analysis of urine for pregnant women is carried out regularly until delivery, since it allows detecting the development of various types of pathologies and taking the necessary measures in a timely manner.

Urine analysis according to Nechiporenko is prescribed for suspected infectious and inflammatory processes in the urinary tract. With its help, you can identify a latent inflammatory process, hematuria, cylindruria.

The normal volume of urine in one urination is approximately the same for women and men and is 100–300 ml.

Daily urine is used for laboratory analysis of protein, creatinine, urea, etc. To determine violations of the pituitary and adrenal glands, an analysis of cortisol is prescribed. It is carried out in case of suspected Cushing's syndrome, adrenogenital syndrome, and other hormonal disorders.

Urinalysis according to Zimnitsky is usually prescribed for suspected inflammatory processes in the kidneys or urolithiasis.

The analysis according to Sulkovich is a determination of the level of calcium in the urine. It is often used in pediatrics to determine urinary calcium excretion during the monitoring of vitamin D therapy (including the selection of the correct dose of the drug).

Urinalysis for diastase allows you to detect violations of the pancreas.

Using a urinalysis test for drugs, it can be determined if a person took narcotic drugs for 2–5 days prior to the study. This method allows you to detect in the urine opiates, marijuana, cocaine, amphetamine, etc.

Nechiporenko analysis

For analysis using the Nechiporenko method, an average portion of morning urine is collected. The beginning is the same as when collecting urine for general analysis, except that not only the first, but also the final portion is released into the toilet.

Before collecting urine, it is necessary to have a toilet of the external genitalia, but it is not recommended to use antibacterial soap for this purpose.

Indications for appointment

In most cases, the examination is performed to assess the patient’s kidney and bladder condition. For the analysis highlighted many indications:

  • physical examination to detect diseases in the early stages of their development,
  • to prepare a person for surgery,
  • in the presence of suspicion of the formation of tumors,
  • if the patient has experienced acute pancreatitis,
  • in order to monitor the health of a patient who has had streptococcal infection,
  • with the development of renal failure,
  • if a person has applied to a health facility with a genitourinary disease,
  • if the patient has diabetes,
  • as one of the mandatory procedures for applying to all the medical institution,
  • if a person has gallstones,
  • when it is necessary to evaluate the treatment of a particular disease.

Any indication for analysis requires an official appointment from the attending specialist.

Daily urine analysis

For laboratory studies of daily urine, the first morning urine is not collected, but the time of urination is noted. All the rest of the urine for that day and the first morning of the next day is collected in a specially designed for this purpose graduated container of 2.7 liters (sold in a pharmacy) or a three-liter jar washed and sterilized with steam. The collection of urine should be done directly into the container, tightly closing it after each urination. During the whole time of collecting the material, the container should be stored in a cool place (for example, on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator), preventing freezing.

All collected urine can be delivered to the laboratory, or, after thorough mixing, can be poured into a small container of 100–150 ml. In the latter case, it is necessary to record and report to the technician the amount of collected daily urine.

Zimnitsky's test

To carry out the analysis according to Zimnitsky, daily urine is also required, however, it is not collected in one container, but eight urine samples are collected separately approximately every three hours (the first morning urine is removed, but the first morning urine is collected the next day). Each portion of the material is collected in a separate container, which indicates the time of urination. If three hours after the previous urination there is no desire to urinate, the container is left empty, noting the time. If there is a need to urinate earlier than in three hours and at the same time there are more than eight servings of urine, fill an additional container, noting the time.

Urine sugar analysis

For analysis of sugar (determination of glucose level in urine), three portions of urine collected per day at intervals of 8 hours are delivered to the laboratory, with the 1st portion being collected from 08:00 to 16:00, the 2nd portion from 16:00: 00 to 24:00, and the 3rd from 00:00 to 08:00.

Before taking the test, it is not recommended to use more or less fluid than usual and change dietary habits, except for the specified restrictions.

Urine analysis by PCR

Urine for polymerase chain reaction (for example, to detect cytomegalovirus, mycobacterium tuberculosis, sexually transmitted infections) is collected in the morning on an empty stomach, since at least two hours have passed since the last urination. The material for analysis is collected in a sterile plastic urine collection container. This study requires at least 20 ml.

Bacteriological analysis of urine

For bacteriological examination (urine for seeding, urine for bacposalum) the material, as well as in the analysis for PCR, is collected exclusively in a specially designed sterile container. Urine should be given before the start of treatment with antibacterial drugs and / or at least three days after its completion. If antibiotic therapy is not completed, it may be necessary to temporarily discontinue medication, but this requires consultation with your doctor. For this study, the average portion of morning urine is collected, as per the analysis according to Nechiporenko.

Urine analysis for cortisol

For analysis of cortisol daily urine is collected in a container with a preservative, which is issued in the laboratory. Biological material should be stored in a dark, cool place throughout the collection. After receiving the last portion, determine the volume of urine, mix it, take 35-40 ml and deliver to the laboratory within 1–1.5 hours.

It is necessary to prepare in advance the container for collecting urine. It is advisable to use disposable plastic containers specifically designed for this purpose.

Deviation of indicators from the norm

The normal volume of urine in one urination is approximately the same for women and men and is 100–300 ml. A decrease in urine volume indicates dehydration or renal failure. A urine volume exceeding the norm is characteristic of diabetes.

Normally, the color of the urine is light yellow. Its change allows to suspect pathological processes in the body. For example, the orange-brown color may indicate liver disease, reddish - to glomerulonephritis, urolithiasis, urinary tract neoplasms.

An increase in specific gravity (density) may indicate dehydration, a decrease may indicate renal pathologies.

Urine is normally transparent, turbidity can be caused by protein, red blood cells, microorganisms, salts, mucus, pus and other impurities.

Protein in the urine may indicate the presence of diseases of the urinary system, glucose and ketone bodies in the urine are determined in diabetes mellitus.

Erythrocytes are detected in pyelonephritis and glomerulonephritis, urolithiasis, infectious diseases, systemic diseases, poisonings. The number of leukocytes in the urine increases with pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis, cystitis, urethritis, prostatitis.

Cylinders are found in the urine with kidney disease, fever, heart failure, hypertension, poisoning with salts of heavy metals. Microorganisms - in infectious processes.

The reasons for the appointment of a general urine

Urine is one of the main products of human life. Its main component, as it is easy to guess, is water, which makes up 92–99% of the total urine volume. But along with excess water, decomposition products, toxins and slags, hormones and some other substances are removed from the body. That is why urine analysis is so informative. General urine analysis refers to the main diagnostic studies and is prescribed for suspected a variety of diseases and pathologies, first of all for kidney and urinary system diseases, as well as for preventive examinations and to monitor the effectiveness of the treatment.

General urine analysis involves both the determination of the physical properties of this fluid and the study of its chemical characteristics. With this study, you can diagnose various diseases of the kidneys, liver, bladder, identify problems with the prostate gland, tumors, pyelonephritis, as well as a number of pathological conditions in the early stages, when clinical manifestations are still absent.

Preparation for the study

To pass the analysis you need to prepare in advance. Recommendations are followed:

  • 1 or 2 days before the test, you must stop taking the medication, which is recommended to make a reminder.
  • The day before the study, the consumption of food containing coloring pigments (chocolate, beets, juices, citrus fruits, carrots) stops.
  • 24 hours before the analysis should not be consumed alcohol.
  • Pre-purchased sterile and dry urine tank.
  • Before collecting urine, hygiene of the genitals is required.
  • The analysis should be done in the morning.
  • It is recommended to take the urine after 6 hours after the last urination.
  • The analysis is given on an empty stomach.
  • The first stream of urine is not suitable as a material for analysis.
  • To study enough 100 ml of urine.
  • Collected urine is sent to the study immediately.

Morning intake of urine requires the rapid conduct of its examination, since the shelf life of the liquid does not exceed 1.5 hours.

Urine taken from a toilet bowl or urinal can not be used as a material for analysis.

Not all ladies know how to properly hand over urine for a study during menstruation. Women do not collect urine during menstruation due to the presence of impurities in it in the form of blood. The results of the indicators will be greatly distorted. It is necessary to wait for the termination of monthly, after which the analysis can be carried out.

Where can I submit urine for general analysis?

Urinalysis is done in many laboratories, but how to choose a reliable one? Pay attention to a few points - the popularity and reputation of the clinic, the availability of modern equipment, the professionalism of the workers, the patient reviews and, of course, comfort. As already mentioned, urine samples cannot be stored for a long time, and the convenient location of the laboratory often becomes a decisive argument. However, we should not neglect the other factors, because not only the speed of obtaining results, but also their accuracy ultimately depends on the professionalism of doctors and laboratory technicians, on the technical equipment of the laboratory.

We recommend to pay attention to the laboratories "INVITRO" - this is a modern technology, highly professional specialists, a quality control system of work and a wide network of branches covering the whole country. In Moscow and the Moscow region alone, there are hundreds of branches, and in whatever district you live, there will always be at least one lab network somewhere nearby. All of them work according to uniform quality standards and according to a schedule convenient for customers, each of which provides a wide range of diagnostic medical services and the highest level of service. In the independent medical laboratory “INVITRO” the analysis results, processed by professional specialists, will be ready within a few hours.

License for medical activities LO-77-01-015932 dated 04.18.2018.

To pass urine

We will tell you in detail how to properly collect urine. It is important to follow a number of rules:

  1. You only need to collect morning urine. Its composition is the most saturated. When it needs to be collected, how to collect urine for analysis correctly? You should do this immediately after waking up, and before that you should not go to the toilet for a long time (5 or 6 hours).
  2. 12 hours before the time when you need to collect urine, you need to start to follow a diet. It is not difficult. At this time, you can not drink alcohol, eat salty foods and spicy dishes, there are foods that can change the color of urine. What products can not eat, how to collect urine? Under the ban, beets and blueberries, as well as caramel and carbonated drinks.
  3. Limit drug intake a day before collecting urine for general analysis, i.e. Do not take diuretics, do not drink vitamins. If you have recently been on cystoscopy, it is not recommended to collect urine for another week.
  4. Avoid physical exertion. Before collecting a general urine test, it is important not to overwork, i.e. avoid physical exertion.

It is important to properly collect urine. First, you need to wash, mucus, which is located on the genitals, should not get into the urine, but otherwise the result will show that it is too high protein. But it is better not to use detergents, and use only warm water. If you need to pass urine to a woman, you cannot collect it during critical days. On other days, it must properly wash away: i. мыться от себя, а не наоборот. Чтобы собрать мочу, надо правильно угадать момент, когда подставлять банку. Первые пару секунд она должна попасть в унитаз, и только потом подставляют тару.Why is it necessary to collect urine? If you immediately write in a jar, epithelium cells will fall into it, which will affect the results. We told about urine analysis how to collect, and later we will see in more detail how to pass a general urine analysis, select containers, etc.

To donate blood

It is necessary to properly prepare for blood donation, how to pass a complete blood count? There are a number of requirements that are best met:

  1. 14 days before you take a complete blood count, do not take medicine, especially antibiotics.
  2. Follow the diet. You can not eat fat, harmful fried, drink alcohol, but otherwise a blood test will show the wrong number of leukocytes.
  3. Smoking is harmful, but if you have not broken the habit, don’t smoke for at least one hour.
  4. Before you take a complete blood count, you can not bathe in the bath, it is important to avoid stress and physically overstrain. Before this, it is impossible to conduct physical procedures, various studies using X-ray and ultrasound.
  5. Properly donate blood on an empty stomach, do not eat at least 8 hours before the procedure. Only allowed to drink some water. This is important because nutrient absorption will affect blood concentrations.
  6. Blood should be donated in the morning, better at 7 o'clock or a little later, because this can also affect the result.

We told how to pass a complete blood count. As we can see, there is nothing difficult in this.

Delivery of the analysis

With a blood test is easier: came to a specialist, and he will collect blood for examination. If you need to collect urine, it is important to know how to pass a general urinalysis. For it you need to purchase sterile dishes. It is best to buy a container in the nearest pharmacy, where you will collect it.

But if you do not have the opportunity to go behind the container, you can use a small clean glass jar. It must be filled to 2/3. We must immediately take it to the laboratory, i.e. can not wait more than 2 or 3 hours. If you can not go to the clinic immediately, store urine in the refrigerator. Once you have managed to collect urine, try not to shake it, carry it carefully.

We told how to pass urine for analysis, how to prepare for a blood test. The attending physician should have informed you about this, but specialists do not always have time for detailed explanations. But, if you have any questions, you can ask them to your doctor, clarify all the points that you seem to be controversial.

Preparation for the fence material

To know how to properly collect urine, you need to understand that a feature of the analysis is that the patient collects the material himself. The exceptions are children and seriously ill people. Therefore, to avoid false results, you must follow a number of rules.

Firstly, during the preparation, to exclude from the diet products that affect the overall performance and physico-chemical properties of urine. Secondly, to warn the doctor about the treatment and the admission of some pharmaceuticals. Thirdly, it is necessary to limit physical activity, including training, as well as to avoid emotional stress.

In order not to get false results of the study, it is necessary to wash the genitals and perineum. Rules for women:

  • wash the outer labia with soap and water,
  • wash off the soap solution
  • clean the crotch with a clean towel
  • Before collecting the urine, it is recommended to insert a tampon into the vagina so that the discharge does not get into the container.

The men wash the urethral opening with soap and water while rinsing the soap solution with water and dry with a clean towel. Similarly prepare children and seriously ill people.

Important! It is not recommended to take an analysis during menstruation, since blood may be released during urination. It is better to conduct research after their completion.

Collection and delivery of material

Morning urine is ideal for diagnosis, since at this time it is protected from diurnal changes in the body. For the result to be the most informative, you will need 100 ml of material. Collect it in a clean, dry container with a wide neck. For reliability and informative studies recommend to buy special sterile jars. In no case should you pour the urine from the vessel, squeeze out of diapers or diapers. Such material gives unreliable results.

How to properly collect urine:

  1. To conduct a wash.
  2. The material is collected on an empty stomach.
  3. To urinate, the men release the external opening of the urethra, and the women move the labia lips apart.
  4. The first portion (approximately 20 ml) is released into the toilet. This is done in order to remove dead skin cells, which normally peel off the walls of the urethra.
  5. Take for laboratory diagnostics only the middle portion.
  6. It is advisable to take the material to the laboratory immediately.
  7. The container must be signed: the appointment, surname, name, patronymic of the patient, date of birth, date of delivery of the material, diagnosis, name of the doctor who sent for examination.

Common mistakes

Even if the patient managed to collect all the urine for analysis, errors sometimes occur. False indicators are obtained if the material is examined later than 2 hours after its receipt. Bacteria that multiply in urine during this time produce waste products and distort the picture of acid-base balance (usually in the alkaline direction).

Other common sampling errors include:

  • The patient is trying to take the material in advance, for example, the night before or at night, and only to pass in the morning. In this urine, in addition to the proliferation of bacteria and yeast fungi, the cellular elements and bile pigments are destroyed.
  • Taking the material immediately after intercourse or bowel movement will not give reliable results.
  • During delivery, it is not possible to freeze the material taken, since the precipitate that is formed may be mistakenly assessed as renal pathologies.

In order not to send the doctor on the wrong path, it is necessary to clarify all the nuances of the research: how to prepare, how much to collect the material and when to bring it to the laboratory. There are many factors that can distort test results and cause false conclusions about the patient's condition.

Important! The diagnosis is made only in conjunction with other clinical data. If you suspect false results, the patient will retake the analysis.

Reasons for changing the color index

With good health, urine in adults has a yellow tint, which causes the pigment urochrome. If the color is excessively intense, they speak of dehydration due to vomiting, diarrhea, or swelling. Dark uremia may be due to cardiovascular failure.

Pale and almost colorless urine happens when taking diuretic drugs. Sometimes when urinating, the patient draws attention to the bright yellow-orange tinge of urine. The reason for this color can be taking vitamins of group B, Furagin, Furadonin, Rifampicin. Therefore, in order to avoid false color indicators, sometimes doctors recommend abolishing staining preparations if this does not affect the treatment process of a person.

Some patients eat intensely colored fruits and vegetables before collecting a general urine test. These are carrots, beets, blueberries. A similar coloring effect has the drug Aspirin or its analogue Antipyrin. In order not to have an unusual color intensity (usually pink) when giving a general urine test, how to collect it and what not to eat should be told by the doctor to your patient.

You should not, before collecting urine for analysis, take drugs, the active component of which is bearberry. You also need to know that Metronidazole and sulfonamides give urine a red-brown color. This complicates diagnosis with pathologies such as phenol poisoning or anemia, in which blood cells are destroyed. Therefore, patients should not only learn how to collect urine for general analysis, but also warn the doctor about taking these medications.

False results of specific gravity and acidity

In order to avoid false assessments of the physical and chemical properties of a michi, you need to know how to assemble it for general analysis. Muddy and opaque material is a result of prolonged standing of urine, as bacteria begin to multiply in it. This cannot be allowed, because similar transparency is an indicator of the presence of blood elements, epithelium or pus in various pathologies.

For the general analysis of urine will not fit the material for the study, if the patient was administered these drugs:

  1. mannitol,
  2. radiopaque substances
  3. dextran
  4. glucose.

These drugs affect the density, increasing the proportion of urine (hyperstenuria). Acceptance of diuretics, on the contrary, reduces the concentration, causing a change in normal parameters.

For analysis, an important criterion is pH, which varies from various factors. False alkaline reaction is obtained if the patient consumed on the eve of exclusively vegetarian or dairy foods. The predominance of meat products in the diet before the study may show an acid reaction. The reasons for the change in pH are also:

  • fruit and vegetable diet,
  • prolonged vomiting or diarrhea the day before,
  • taking Adrenaline, Vitamin C, Methionine, Nicotinamide,
  • starvation,
  • eating cranberries
  • protein diet.

Therefore, before collecting urine tests, it is necessary to switch to a balanced diet and consult with a doctor about drug withdrawal at the time of collection.

Causes of protein, glucose, acetone

In the study of one of the important indicators is the presence of protein, which indicates a variety of pathologies of the urogenital system. However, under stress or hypothermia, this substance will be detected. Proteinuria occurs in adolescents during active growth.

In laboratory analysis, the material for glucose is examined. Its presence in patients gives reason to suspect diabetes. However, if, before collecting urine, to eat foods that contain a lot of sugar (for example, condensed milk), glucosuria is diagnosed. Factors of high sugar in the urine can also be:

  1. injuries
  2. taking anabolic steroids
  3. Carbamazepine
  4. glucocorticosteroids (Prednisolone, Hydrocortisone),
  5. vitamin PP,
  6. diuretics (Furosemide).

In healthy patients, acetonuria is not detected. However, when fasting, fat diet, insufficient intake of carbohydrates, ketone bodies can be detected. Substances are present in urine also during physical exertion, emotional distress, loss of fluid (diarrhea, high temperature) on the eve of taking the material for research.

Important! Heavy physical work or sports training can cause hemoglobin to appear in the test material.

Causes of false urine residue test results

A sample of solid particles is examined in the urine portion. If the material is collected in violation of the rules, the analyzes are false-positive. For example, the contamination of urine with blood during menstruation in women will show the excess of red blood cells, which are detected if the patient has acute inflammatory processes or injuries of the urinary tract. Long-term use of anticoagulants, sulfonamides also leads to the appearance of red blood cells in the material.

Violation of the rules of hygiene - the reason that the analysis will be false leukocyturia (a characteristic symptom of all inflammations). Cylinders in the test material may be due to overheating of the body, hypertension, physical exertion, or long-term use of diuretics or salicylates.

In patients who take ampicillin or sulfonamides in large doses, the likelihood of salt crystals is high. Urata detected during physical exertion, the excess in the diet of meat products. In newborns, uric acid salts are detected after fluid loss during diarrhea or vomiting. Excess phosphate is associated with vomiting or gastric lavage on the eve of the study. Salt of oxalic acid can detect if the patient included in the food tomatoes, ketchup, sorrel, rhubarb.

Repeated analysis shows the dynamics of the disease and the effectiveness of the therapy. The study provides an opportunity to control the development of complications of the disease. Therefore, it is worthwhile to treat the procedure responsibly and find out in advance how to properly collect urine so that the result is the most informative and reliable. The rules for the delivery of clinical analysis by patients are the same for a medical commission, medical examination or registration for treatment in a hospital.