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Gynecomastia treatment with and without surgery

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Gynecomastia is an increase in the mammary gland in men. This problem in adolescence and childbearing age can cause great discomfort. A man can shy his body in situations where he needs to bare the torso.

Enlarged breasts sometimes cause ridicule from the side and can cause difficulties in dealing with women. Often, due to the onset of gynecomastia symptoms, a man has an inferiority complex with which a psychologist needs to work.

If there is a problem with the mammary glands, you must first contact a mammologist and an endocrinologist. After the diagnosis and treatment, if it was ineffective, the question of surgical treatment is considered.

Before the operation in the clinic, the patient will be sent to a consultation with an oncologist-mammologist. Removal of gynecomastia is a standard procedure. When glandular tissue grows, its excess is excised, with parallel correction of the amount of skin and position of the nipple.

In case of pathology caused by obesity, liposuction is performed in the problem area with a laser and excision of skin surplus. The treatment takes place under general anesthesia, local anesthesia does not apply. Before making a decision, it is useful not only to consult with your doctor, but also to read patient reviews.

The price of the surgery depends on the selected clinic and the method of operation.

The main causes of gynecomastia

Gynecomastia in men appears when estrogen predominates over androgens. Often this occurs in infancy, adolescence and old age. In these periods of time, it is physiological and in most cases takes place independently. If this does not occur, surgical removal of the gynecomastia is indicated.

In medical practice, there are cases when the cause of breast growth is the presence of diseases of the sexual sphere in a patient. This is especially true of problems with one or two testicles, when there is a lack of testosterone in the body.

This can lead to Klinefelter syndrome, anorchia, insufficient synthesis of the male sex hormone. Acquired pathologies can also cause gynecomastia.

Its development is observed in patients who have been injured or have had severe infectious diseases. Decreased blood flow and testicular cancer have repeatedly caused breast growth in men.

Do not forget that gynecomastia can be caused by taking medications, the list of which is quite long and includes several groups of drugs.

Increased estrogen production often becomes the cause of pathology. This phenomenon can occur with testicular or adrenal tumors, as well as lung cancer or chorionic carcinoma. Breast augmentation may be a symptom of diseases of internal organs. Hunger and obesity are not the best way to affect the state of the body, disrupting the normal metabolism.

What drugs cause the development of the disease

The cause of the pathology can be taking medications.

Before making a decision that it is necessary to remove gynecomastia, the patient must necessarily provide the doctor with a list of medications that he takes to make sure that they do not contribute to the growth of the mammary glands.

Breast augmentation is often found in men who are undergoing chronic disease therapy.

It is necessary to control the condition of the breast when prescribing and taking drugs with antiandrogenic effects, such as Tsiproteron, Flutamide and Leuprorelin.

Calcium antagonists, antitumor agents and H2 blockers (especially Cimetidine and Ranitidine) can cause gynecomastia. If the enlargement of the glands is caused by taking the medicine, it should disappear one month after the cancellation of their use.

There are many cases of gynecomastia in people with alcohol or drug addiction. This should also be taken into account when determining the cause of breast growth in men.

Types of gynecomastia

Depending on the cause, pathology is divided into three main types:

  • True gynecomastia. It is caused by the proliferation of breast tissue. In some cases, this may be a physiological process, but there is also a pronounced pathology. Most often, the appearance of physiological gynecomastia coincides with periods of hormonal adjustment in men, when the balance between testosterone and estrogen, which are sex hormones, is disturbed.
  • False Gynecomastia. Breast augmentation occurs due to an increase in the amount of adipose tissue in the breast area in men.
  • Mixed gynecomastia combines the presence of enlarged glands and fat deposits in the chest.

Although the process of removal of gynecomastia is the “gold standard” in the treatment of this pathology, you need to make sure that there are no contraindications to it. Before the operation, the doctor must make a diagnosis and find the cause of the disease.

Symptoms of gynecomastia in men

The main symptom of gynecomastia is an increase in one or two mammary glands in men. In most cases, it is bilateral, only in a third of men, pathology appears only on one side.

In rare cases, there is a discharge from the breast, similar to colostrum. Soreness is very rarely present, but the patient may experience increased sensitivity and mild discomfort.

Problems with potency are observed only if the problem is caused by a hormonal imbalance, with increased estrogen production or low testosterone levels.

Indications and contraindications to the treatment of pathology by surgery

The operation is indicated to those patients who want to get rid of this pathology, if treatment with conservative methods did not bring results. With the help of massage, exercise or bandaging, it is impossible to cope with an enlarged breast; these attempts are doomed to failure.

The operation is not carried out in patients with bleeding disorders and diabetes mellitus. Contraindication is the presence of hypertension and certain diseases of the thyroid gland.

Treatment without surgery by conservative methods

In children, physiological gynecomastia goes away by itself. If there is a problem in transitional age, then the adolescent needs to see a doctor.

The lack of positive dynamics for more than 6 months, as well as a significant increase in the level of estrogen is the basis for prescribing medications, which are aimed at correcting hormonal levels. For these purposes, the doctor prescribes Danazol, Clomifen or Tamoxifen.

It is recommended in parallel to seek help from a psychologist so that he helps the adolescent to cope with psychological problems, if they are present.

Treatment of pathological gynecomastia in adults is carried out after finding the cause of hormonal imbalance. Men with a lack of testosterone are prescribed drugs to increase their blood levels. If the patient has increased estradiol levels, the doctor prescribes drugs that reduce the level of estrogen (Clomifen, Tamoxifen, etc.).

Surgery to remove gynecomastia: preparation, conduct, rehabilitation and patient feedback

Treatment of breast augmentation should take place under the guidance of a competent endocrinologist.

In the absence of a result from conservative therapy, an operation to remove a gynecomastia is prescribed, since if there is no reduction of the mammary glands for a long period of time, then there is no longer any hope for an involutionary process. In addition to surgery, there is no other way to reduce the breast in a man, if the use of drugs did not help.

How is the preparation done?

Patients who decide to have surgery to remove gynecomastia should stop smoking and drinking alcohol before surgery. The patient needs to eat right and not take medications without the permission of the doctor.

He is necessarily sent to an endocrinologist, who will give direction to the delivery of tests for hormones. The general examination of the patient’s body will not interfere.

Immediately before the operation, an ultrasound of the mammary glands and nearby lymph nodes is done. A few hours before the operation can not eat or drink. Before surgery, the patient must perform hygienic procedures.

How is going

The operation of reduction mammoplasty is usually performed in combination with liposuction under general anesthesia. Its purpose is to remove excess breast tissue, reconstruction and pumping excess fat. The excised tissue must be submitted for histology.

An incision is made either along the edge of the halo, or in the region of the axillary hollows, depending on the technique chosen by the plastic surgeon. After the necessary surgical procedures, dissected tissue is sutured. Drainage tubes are placed in the wound and sterile dressings are applied to the damaged areas.

Postoperative period and rehabilitation

Despite the fact that the operation to remove gynecomastia is not very difficult, the patient may feel discomfort after it, so the doctor prescribes painkillers. In places where surgery was performed, swelling and seals may occur.

For two weeks, the patient needs to wear compression underwear to avoid possible complications of the early postoperative period, such as bleeding, as well as the appearance of gray and an increase in edema.

As a rule, the patient is discharged on the same day. The stitches are removed after 10 days. In order for rehabilitation to go faster, physiotherapy procedures are prescribed to the patient, as well as special ointments that need to be used to treat wounds for better scarring.

Laser removal of false gynecomastia

Laser surgery to remove gynecomastia is used to eliminate its false form. After anesthesia, a thin cannula is inserted through a small puncture under the skin, by means of which fatty tissue is destroyed.

After it turns into a homogeneous mass, it is removed using a vacuum device. After surgery, barely noticeable small scars remain. Despite the high cost, this method is popular because it is gentle to the patient.

Patient reviews about treatment

On the Internet there is a huge amount of patient feedback on the operation to remove gynecomastia and photos of the result. They are mostly positive and the people who turned to the surgeon were satisfied.

If a man has the opportunity to resort to the help of a doctor and there are no contraindications to the operation, she will help to get rid of the problem once and for all. Plastic surgery today is quite developed, which minimizes the possibility of complications in the patient.

Treatment of gynecomastia without surgery

Before proceeding to surgical treatment, they try to treat the disease with the help of conservative therapy.

If the gynecomastia is true (that is, breast augmentation is due to the proliferation of glandular tissue), then drugs are prescribed that regulate hormonal metabolism (increase testosterone production and simultaneously suppress the synthesis of female sex hormones). In addition, in the case of evidence, cancel the reception of drugs that could cause the development of gynecomastia.

In case of false gynecomastia, the cause of which is the proliferation of adipose tissue of the gland, a positive result may occur after the patient is prescribed a low-calorie diet in combination with moderate exercise.

It should be remembered that all the above methods of treatment of gynecomastia are possible only at the initial stage of the disease, when the process can still be reversed. If treatment begins after the process of growth of the tissues of the mammary glands has become irreversible, then resort to more radical methods of treatment.

One of these methods is liposuction, during which excess fat is removed from the patient’s chest glands. The advantage of this technique is that it is minimally invasive.

But liposuction is useless if glandular tissue, rather than fatty tissue, develops. And in the case of false gynecomastia, liposuction is usually used as an adjunct to surgical intervention.

Indications and contraindications for surgical treatment of gynecomastia

Indications for surgical treatment of gynecomastia in men:

  • nodal or diffuse form of the disease, if it is not possible to completely eliminate the possibility of breast cancer,
  • any form of the disease in which a man experiences pain in the chest,
  • nodal gynecomastia (in adolescents, observation and conservative treatment of the disease for 12 months are allowed, surgery is indicated in the absence of positive dynamics).

Contraindications to surgical treatment of gynecomastia in men:

  • blood diseases associated with impaired blood clotting,
  • severe somatic diseases
  • infectious diseases in the acute stage, during which is accompanied by a rise in temperature.

Preparing for surgery

Before conducting surgery for the removal of gynecomastia, the doctor collects anamnesis, interrogates the man, conducts a full examination of the patient, using various laboratory and instrumental methods.

During the interview, the doctor asks whether the patient has chronic diseases, how long his breast glands began to grow, whether he had to do any operations in the past, what drugs the man is currently taking, whether he is allergic to any medicines and so on.

After that, the patient is sent for blood and urine tests, as well as a coagulogram (to exclude diseases associated with bleeding disorders, in which surgery is contraindicated).

After that, blood tests for hormones, as well as ultrasound and chest x-rays are performed. This is done so that after the operation you can evaluate the result.

Patients who smoke must quit this habit at least 14 days before the operation. Otherwise, tissue healing after surgery will proceed very slowly, which is fraught with the development of complications.

Possible complications

Some time after the end of the operation, it is possible for a man to develop such complications as:

  • scarring (occurs with hematomas or if an infection is in the wound),
  • congestive pneumonia,
  • swelling of soft tissue
  • fat necrosis
  • hemorrhages, hematomas, bruises,
  • damage to muscles, nerves and blood vessels,
  • thrombosis,
  • wound infection
  • skin pigmentation,
  • slow healing of the wound surface
  • change in the shape of the breasts, the appearance of asymmetry,
  • loss of skin sensitivity at the surgical site.

What you need to know?

Surgical treatment of such pathology as gynecomastia has been used for quite a long time and is considered a generally accepted standard. True, it is not always carried out - in the early stages there is enough and conservative treatment. If a gynecomastia appears in a teenager, then within two years the operation is not performed, since during this period the manifestations of this disease often disappear.

The purpose of surgery is to restore the normal outlines of the breast, excision of glandular and fatty tissues. If an elderly person suffers from gynecomastia, then he may also need to remove excess skin. But for young people whose skin is still in good shape, such a procedure is usually not required.

What to do with gynecomastia?

It is worth noting that the most effective method of treating such a pathology as gynecomastia is an operation cost, which may differ somewhat in different clinics. If a man has found symptoms of gynecomastia, then he needs to get advice from specialists such as a surgeon and an endocrinologist. You will also have to be tested for blood hormones and undergo ultrasound of both breasts.

After receiving all the results, the doctor should explain in detail to the patient what kind of operation he will have and what results from it should be expected. Also, the surgeon is obliged to conduct an examination of the mammary glands in order to determine what the ratio of glandular and fatty tissues. It is from this will depend on the method of surgical intervention. To get rid of the false gynecomastia, liposuction is enough, but the solution to such a problem as true gynecomastia is an operation with the removal of the breast tissue through a very small paraareolar incision.

Surgical process

The operation lasts about one and a half hours. Сначала операционное поле обрабатывают спиртом, а затем накладывают специальное хирургическое белье. После этого хирург приступает к работе.

Липосакция выполняется посредством проколов диаметром всего два миллиметра. To remove excess skin, the nipple is moved up, excess skin is cut off, and a barely noticeable scar remains in the nipple area. If the cause of gynecomastia is glandular tissue, then the operation is performed by means of a paraareolar incision. Through the use of this method, it is possible to avoid the formation of scars on the skin.

After operation

As a rule, gynecomastia disappears after surgery. To recover quickly, you must follow a few simple rules:

  • do not smoke for at least a couple of weeks,
  • do not take blood thinning medications for about 14 days,
  • three weeks need to wear compression underwear,
  • 21 days not to play sports,
  • about 7 days do not raise your hands high.

Pain is usually mild, and analgesics can help get rid of it. If everything is all right, then the next day a man can be discharged from the hospital. Complications are extremely rare, usually only in elderly patients. Sometimes it is possible to reduce the sensitivity of the nipples or some asymmetry of the mammary glands.

One of the most important aspects of choosing a clinic for such treatment as surgery to remove gynecomastia is the price. But you should pay attention to the reputation of doctors, their experience, as well as reviews of people treated in this clinic. Only with this approach can we expect that gynecomastia will no longer cause any concern.

Efficiency

There are three types of gynecomastia removal operations.:

Mammoplasty involves the partial removal of breast tissue, with a mastectomy, the iron is removed completely, liposuction does not affect the deep tissues and implies a reduction in body fat.

Mastectomy has the highest efficiency, the development of a true gynecomastia after its implementation becomes impossible.

Mammoplasty is also quite effective, but after it a relapse is possible, so the mammary gland continues to function. False gynecomastia after liposuction is eliminated, and the probability of recurrence depends on the lifestyle of the man, especially on the diet.

Gynecomastia in men, surgery and indications for it:

    In addition to aesthetic considerations (for example, a breach of the proportionality of the appearance of the breast with severe unilateral gynecomastia), the need for surgery may be dictated by medical indications.

The main one is the suspicion of the development of a malignant formation of the breast.

  • Also, the operation should be carried out in cases where gynecomastia is constantly increasing in size, causing severe pain, palpation of the breast groping solid formation.
  • A rare but guaranteed indication for surgery is the presence of specific BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in the genes; these mutations significantly increase the risk of developing breast cancer.
  • Surgical intervention becomes necessary if the treatment of hormone hormone gynecomastia for a long time did not give results, because hormone therapy increases the likelihood of developing cancer.
  • The need for a gynecomastia removal operation is determined by the endocrinologist and the surgeon; if a malignant tumor is suspected, an oncologist will perform additional diagnostics. How to remove gynecomastia, read further in the article.

    Testing and preparation

    Before the operation is scheduled, the patient must undergo a series of diagnostic procedures.:

    • blood tests for hormones and biochemistry, checking its clotting,
    • mammography,
    • Ultrasound of the breast and scrotum,
    • chest x-ray.

    A few days before surgery, a man should stop smoking and consuming alcohol, as well as taking medications that change blood clotting (analgesics).

    Next on how the operation to remove gynecomastia in men.

    Gynecomastia surgery

    Surgical treatment of false and true varieties of gynecomastia differ. False gynecomastia is caused by the accumulation of fat in the breast area, it is not characterized by the presence of pathologies of the breast.

    This type of disease lends itself well to conservative treatment, which is to follow a diet and follow other measures that help burn excess fat.

    Gynecomastia surgery of this type is performed only with a significant accumulation of adipose tissue.

    To eliminate them, the liposuction method is used.:

    1. During liposuction, the patient is put into general anesthesia.
    2. In the area near the nipples, punctures are made into which fluid is injected, which is a mixture of electrolytes, anesthetic and vasoconstrictor agents.
    3. Then, small rods with rounded ends are inserted into the punctures, with their help, excess adipose tissue is removed, while the nerves and lymph nodes are not damaged.

    Liposuction is a non-painful operation, if the man’s body is healthy and the surgeon is properly qualified, negative consequences are excluded.

    In the first week after liposuction, a man should wear compression underwear, it is necessary to maintain the correct breast shape during the recovery period.. The effects of surgery, such as puffiness and hematomas, may persist for 2–3 weeks.

    Mastectomy is a deeper and more traumatic intervention, but in some cases it is the only effective way to eliminate true gynecomastia, which is characterized by an increase in the mammary glands.

    1. Gynecomastia surgery is performed under local or general anesthesia.
    2. An incision is made in the area near the nipples, which is penetrated by a surgical instrument, removing the mammary gland and the surrounding lymph nodes.
      At the same time, fatty tissues are moved in such a way that a seal is formed under the nipples, which does not allow them to sink inward.
    3. At the end of the operation for gynecomastia, the incision is sutured, the suture is removed after 2-3 weeks. During the recovery period, a man may observe hematomas and swelling in the nipple area.

    Reduction mammoplasty is generally similar to a mastectomy, but differs from it in that during this operation, gynecomastia can be removed only by removing a part of the mammary gland.

    The volume of tissue removed is determined before the intervention and depends on the stage of gynecomastia and the severity of the associated symptoms..

    • tissue incision is carried out using electrocautery,
    • residual tissues are given the required shape by means of sutures, skin-fat patches are formed on them.

    Mammoplasty is a more complex operation compared to other methods of gynecomastia treatment, which increases the likelihood of complications.

    With the wrong planning of flap sizes, deformation of the mammary gland is possible, and deep interventions in its structure carry the risk of purulent and necrotic changes in the tissues even with sterile surgery.

    Gynecomastia in men, photos before and after surgery:



    Gynecomastia relapse after surgery

    And now more about this: gynecomastia after surgery, recovery. In the absence of complications, breast tissue restoration takes place within a month.

    But certain precautions must be observed for several months after the operation.:

    • you should not abuse cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, it is desirable to follow a healthy diet,
    • physical exertion should be moderate and gradually increasing; it is forbidden to immediately switch to heavy exercises with a barbell and exercise equipment.

    Useful video

    You can watch the introductory video to better understand the process of gynecomastia surgery:

    The choice of surgical intervention for the treatment of gynecomastia depends on the type of disease. The most difficult operations are required for the elimination of true gynecomastia in the later stages of development, with a false form of the disease, surgical methods are used relatively rarely.

    We hope that now you understand such concepts as gynecomastia in men, treatment and surgery of this disease, as well as what should be done after the removal of gynecomastia.

    The purpose of the consultation endocrinologist:

    Of course, it is not worth neglecting endocrinological treatment. As by itself, gynecomastia can only indicate any of the diseases that a man has, such as liver problems. The fact is that the female hormone estrogen, which in a certain amount is always present in men, is controlled in the body in a way that is destroyed by the liver. That is what does not lead to its imbalance. If the liver has any problems, then the processing of the hormone estrogen may stop, and as a result of its overabundance, gynecomastia, the growth of breast tissue, may occur.

    An endocrinological examination can also show the presence of overweight or even obesity. The fact is that with an increase in adipose tissue, there is a natural decrease in the male sex hormone testosterone, as a result, the ratio of the two hormones changes, the estrogen becomes larger, which also automatically leads to an increase in the male gland and, as a result, gynecomastia. Therefore, it is possible that a man really needs a diet, observation by an endocrinologist and constant monitoring of hormone levels.

    However, it should be added that such treatment often leads to the fact that the balance of hormones in the body is restored, but the chest still remains the same. This is influenced by the mass of internal factors, including the human metabolism, his age and others. Therefore, surgical removal of the mammary gland should be an addition to the general treatment, or rather, its consequence. Initially, a person really needs to try to eliminate the causes of gynecomastia (which can be based on serious diseases like cirrhosis of the liver or cancer), and only then get rid of the existing aesthetic imperfections.

    The purpose of the oncologist consultation:

    Due to the fact that gynecomastia is largely defined as benign tumors in the chest, going to an oncologist will not only be superfluous, but even strictly necessary. The oncologist should carefully examine the results of the ultrasound examination of the patient, make a number of necessary analyzes (blood, urine and others), and ultimately find out whether the patient has malignant neoplasms and what are his risks of their appearance in the future. By itself, gynecomastia, as mentioned earlier, may indicate problems not only with the breast, but also with other organs. Thus, the results of oncological studies and complete computed tomography can reveal that a person already has a cancer, but not the chest, but other organs, such as the lungs. This will be indicated by the presence of specific hormones in the blood and urine.

    The purpose of the consultation of a plastic surgeon:

    As mentioned at the beginning, according to statistics, 9 out of 10 cases of gynecomastia will require its surgical removal. Today it is accepted to conditionally divide the types of gynecomastia into three types:

    The essence of true gynecomastia is that it is based on an enlarged mammary gland, which caused the emergence of a “female” breast in a man.

    False gynecomastia is so called because with this type the main volume of a man’s enlarged breast is made up of adipose tissue, and not the mammary gland.

    Finally, the type of mixed gynecomastia includes the breast, in which the permissible volumes of the mammary gland and adipose tissue are exceeded. It is worth adding that this type occurs most often.

    In any of these cases, gynecomastia is subject to surgical removal.

    What is the importance of plastic surgery for gynecomastia?

    • Aesthetic. There is no need to explain what the degree of mental discomfort caused to a man by gynecomastia. Its removal occurs in just a few hours, and recovery takes a few weeks. This operation really saves the nerves and psyche of men faced with gynecomastia.
    • Oncoprophylactic. Any benign neoplasm, whether in men or women, and in which part of the body is not a good sign. The risk of cancer increases, and an oncologist will help determine its degree. Plastic surgery in this case will be a way to eliminate this risk.
    • Security value. Surgery is usually more expensive than drug treatment. But, oddly enough, the operation and safer. The essence of drug treatment should be to ensure that the level of hormones is equalized, to bring them into balance. But we must remember that it is impossible to make this artificially. Hormones are a very specific thing, if for a long time they come from the outside (in tablets and capsules), then as a result, their independent production by the body may decrease. Restoration of hormonal levels is desirable to lead naturally, in order to subsequently not sit all my life on pills. Therefore, if treatment at the endocrinologist does not give visible results, that is, the breast does not decrease, then it will come to the rescue only plastic surgery.

    This is not to say that there is one better way to eliminate gynecomastia. On the contrary, getting rid of it should be carried out "on all fronts." However, in most cases it is necessary to complete it with plastic surgery.

    You can learn more about this operation from the section “Gynecomastia”

    Risk factors

    This pathology is not just characterized by dyshormonal disorders that lead to external changes. Gynecomastia is fraught with the formation of cancer without treatment.

    In addition, there are additional risk factors that contribute to the progression of the disease:

    1. Lack of healthy nutrition - carcinogenic food adversely affects the body's metabolic processes, putting off many calories in the cells, as well as slowing down the metabolism. First of all it affects the body mass, which begins to increase significantly. This directly affects gynecomastia, as a result of which the fat cells begin to be replaced with glandular ones.
    2. Minimum physical activity - also contributes to weight gain, which adversely affects the development of the disease. Congestion in the body can provoke comorbidities, such as endocrine disruption. These trends contribute to the direct development of gynecomastia.

    Indications for surgery


    The most important indication is considered to be the risk of the transition of benign seals to oncological forms of the disease, which can give metastases to all organs and systems of the body or relapse.

    In addition, there are additional indications for surgery:

    1. The ineffectiveness of conservative treatment - when the course of drug therapy is fully passed, but the positive effect was not achieved or did not completely change the patient's condition.
    2. Breast hypertrophy - when the male breast takes on too large size, even in relation to its weight.
    3. An increasing number of seals in the mammary glands.
    4. The proliferation of glandular tissue in the mammary glands.

    Operative intervention

    There are two methods of operation - standard and laser.

      Standard - is carried out by means of a scalpel. The mechanism of action can be considered conservative - an incision is made from which all fatty tissue is pumped out, and then the glandular tissue is excised. In advanced cases, it is necessary to remove nearby tissues, including muscles, so that glandular cells do not have the ability to reproduce.

    You may be interested in an article on how to treat genicomastia at home.

    An article about breast cancer in men is in this article.

    The difference is that the surrounding tissues that are in contact with the glandular, it is not necessary to excise as much as possible. Laser rays scorch these boundaries, preventing further spread of the pathological cells. This method has only positive feedback from patients.

    You may be interested in an article on how to identify gynecomastia.

    About gynecomastia in athletes, read this article.

    The extreme degree of surgical intervention is the removal of the mammary glands. This method is shown in the existing transition of ferrous benign lesions to malignant ones. In this case, the mammary glands are removed completely, as far as the pathological process allows.

    Postoperative period

    As a rule, after surgery, gynecomastia is not newly formed. Especially the rehabilitation period is well influenced by adherence to a healthy lifestyle and avoiding alcohol, smoking and unhealthy foods.

    It is necessary to fully switch to diet food and regularly conduct surveys of the body at the level of hormones. Usually after a successful operation, men begin to treat their health differently. Compliance with doctor's appointments and scheduled visits for inspection are becoming the norm, as is the restoration of weight and hormonal levels of the body.

    How is surgery to remove gynecomastia in men, see the following video:

    Not once noticed men with a similar body. Honestly, I did not think that this was some kind of disease, and all the more so that it was also necessary to treat it. Nowadays, with the advent of the indiscriminate fast food, alcoholic weekend is a disease not uncommon in men.

    I have many friends with this particular disease. But many of them do nothing about it, and moreover they don’t go to the doctor. Думаю, что если мужчину ничего не беспокоит, то это будет только проблема внешнего вида и к операции прибегать не стоит.

    У моего папы тоже такая проблема уже давно. I always thought that it all came from him because of the large use of beer. Believed that it causes the growth of female hormones. Should he go to the doctor if nothing bothers him, tell me?

    Characteristics and types

    Gynecomastia can occur in men of any age and is marked by a multifactorial etiology. The disease is divided into 3 main periods:

    • neonatal - the development of the mammary glands in newborn boys, occurring due to maternal estrogens circulating in the blood. Duration may be weeks or months, treatment is not required,
    • pubertal - occurs in adolescence maturation, during which the level of the hormone estradiol prevails over testosterone,
    • age - appears in men after 50 years in a period of lower testosterone levels and estrogen imbalances with androgens.

    It should also distinguish between gynecomastia as true, false and mixed type. The true form of the disease can only be treated surgically by removing the gland under the nipple. False gynecomastia occurs most often due to overweight, in which case liposuction is performed through punctures in the skin and excess fat is removed. True and mixed forms are dangerous, since the risk of developing oncology is high. If bloody discharge from the nipple, enlarged lymph nodes in the armpits or other skin changes in the chest area appear, you should immediately contact a specialist for help.

    Causes of development

    The reasons for the emergence and development of gynecomastia include the following factors:

    • obesity,
    • metabolic and hormonal disorders,
    • cirrhosis of the liver,
    • starvation and exhaustion,
    • tumors
    • thyroid problems
    • renal failure
    • hermaphroditism,
    • Kleinfelter syndrome,
    • psychological stress
    • alcoholism,
    • herpes,
    • chest injuries.

    There is a conservative and surgical method for the treatment of gynecomastia. The use of hormone drugs is aimed at reducing the female hormones estrogen, but this method is effective only at the initial stage of the disease. Numerous studies have shown that in patients with gynecomastia, the risk of breast cancer is much higher than in healthy men. Therefore, the best option for the treatment of this disease is surgical removal of the breast. Especially in the case of true or mixed gynecomastia surgery is simply necessary.

    The operation aims to remove glandular tissue and surrounding fat deposits to restore the correct contour of the breast. Indications for surgical removal of the breast are as follows:

    • excessive breast volume
    • obvious cosmetic defect,
    • duration of illness more than one year
    • the futility of conservative treatment,
    • suspected cancer.

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