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The rate of pressure in children by age - table

Knowing what is the rate of pressure in children and adolescents helps parents to understand in a timely manner that something is wrong with their child. Significant deviations from standard age indicators often indicate serious problems with the body. Should I worry about this or not, the doctor will say after a full examination of the young patient.

The rate of pressure in children and adolescents by age

Parents should measure their children's pressure from time to time. It is also advisable to always keep a table close at hand, in which the norm of blood pressure by age is indicated. Comparison of current indicators and values ​​that are typical for a healthy child will tell a lot about their condition.

Infants often have low blood pressure. This is due to the development of the capillary network and the elasticity of blood vessels. Usually in babies up to 1 year old blood pressure does not go beyond the limits of values ​​from 60 to 40 and up to 96 to 50 mm Hg. Art. These figures increase slightly by the time the child reaches one month of age. In the future, blood pressure will continue to rise. Its values ​​by 12 months will depend on the development of the baby and his fatness. Typically, the pressure at this time is 80 to 112 mm Hg. Art. This increase is directly related to an increase in vascular tone.

If parents do not want to bother with constant calculations, they can simply verify current pressure measurements with the values ​​that the table contains, which defines the blood pressure standard.

There is absolutely nothing wrong with the fact that the measurements do not correspond to the age indicators, which are indicated in the table. Increased or reduced pressure in a child under 1 year does not always speak of the disease. This parameter is influenced by many factors, including the weather and whether the child has slept well. If the abnormal pressure is held for a long time, then it is worthwhile to tell the doctor about it on the next examination.

In babies, many indicators are still unstable, and blood pressure, including

2 to 3 years

By the second year of life in a child, the normal pressure rises to 112 to 74 mm Hg. Art. It stops growing at the same rate as before, and becomes more stable. If children under 3 years of age have a blood pressure that is much higher than the norm, but this phenomenon was observed only once, then there is no reason for anxiety. The situation is different when it stays at such a level for 3 weeks or more.

From 6 to 9 years

The minimum value of blood pressure in children 6-7 years old remain the same. This applies to both the upper and lower index. Special changes should not be observed in a child of 8 years and 9 years. For them, pressure is normal, which is within 122 to 78 mm Hg. Art.

Sometimes there may be slight changes in pressure and pulse in children of this age. This is given by the following explanation:

  • Decreased physical activity
  • Experiences in entering school,
  • Increase emotional load.

Parents should watch their child's blood pressure if he often complains of headaches at the end of the day and looks very tired.

If the undergraduate is sluggish and complains of a headache, you need to check his blood pressure.

From 10 to 12 years

A child of 10-11 years old starts the process of puberty in the body. Against this background, there may be significant changes that affect blood pressure. Most often, girls at the age of 10-12 years old complain about the symptoms of high or low blood pressure as they start to mature more quickly.

The blood pressure rate at 10–12 years in children is characterized by values ​​of 126 to 82 mm Hg. Art. This is the maximum rate that is normal in a child of this age.

The current values ​​of blood pressure in a child do not always correspond to the average in norm. Differences can be observed in girls and boys too thin, or vice versa, a dense constitution. Growth is no less important. As a rule, high and thin children always have a little lowered blood pressure.

From 13 to 15 years

It is very difficult to understand whether a teenager is under normal pressure for 14 years. That's because at this age, from the age of 13, children are constantly under stress. So it is common for them to have higher or lower rates of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The following factors will affect their level:

  • Long stay in front of a computer monitor,
  • Hormonal changes in the body,
  • High workloads associated with studies.

If a teenager 13-15 years old has no health problems, then his pressure will be in the range of 110 to 70 mm Hg. Art. and up to 136 at 86 ft. Art. Girls and boys at this age may complain of heart palpitations and pulse, headaches, and occasional dizziness. If such conditions disturb a teenager regularly, he should see a specialist. Usually this ailment disappears on its own after some time.

Hormonal changes and stress provoke pressure spikes in adolescents

Parents will not hurt to print out a memo in the form of a table in which blood pressure standards are indicated in children of different ages.

Having this table at hand, moms do not have to look in the reference books every time the answer to the question of whether their children have normal pressure.

Gender differences

Blood pressure values ​​in adolescents and younger children may depend on their gender. So in attention it is required to take such nuances:

  1. From the first days of life and up to 12 months in boys and girls, pressure indicators are the same,
  2. By 3-4 years there is a significant difference between blood pressure in children of different sexes. In girls, it is being promoted,
  3. By age five, pressure values ​​become equal,
  4. From 5 to 10 years old girls again have higher pressure than boys,
  5. After 10 years, boys have high BP values. Girls stop leading in this regard. This trend usually persists to 16 years.

If you do not take into account gender differences, you can make a mistake when deciding whether the current pressure is normal for a girl or a boy.

How to measure

To understand how much pressure a child has, it is necessary to measure it correctly. Measurements are required when the baby is at rest. This is a prerequisite that will allow you to get the most reliable result. It is recommended to carry out this procedure in the morning. At least 1 hour before the measurement of blood pressure should not give the child caffeinated products, as they affect the work of the cardiovascular system.

It must be ensured that the child is not agitated or frightened.

To measure the pressure in a child of 10 years, younger or older, you can use a normal phonendoscope or electronic tonometer. Do not forget to first look at what the rate of blood pressure should be in a particular case.

If you need to regularly measure the pressure of children, it is recommended to purchase special cuffs in advance. Those intended for adults may adversely affect the final measurement result. It should be ensured that the lower edge of the cuff is located no higher than 3 cm from the zone of the cubital fossa.

If the child is not yet 2 years old, it is best for him to take measurements in the supine position. Older children are allowed to perform the procedure while they are sitting. To obtain the most reliable results, doctors advise to take measurements over several days. The whole procedure should take place within a full minute, and not a few seconds.

Before proceeding with the procedure, you need to wear a suitable cuff on the child's hand. It must be ensured that a finger can fit between the product and the skin. Next, an adult can begin to search for arteries. Necessary is located on the elbow. A phonendoscope should be attached to this place.

Now you can start forcing air. In the meantime, you need to fix the time at the moment when the pulse is no longer audible. After the pressure starts to lower, slowly opening the valve. In conclusion, it remains to make the standard calculations of the upper and lower blood pressure.

Increased pressure

The doctor may suspect hypertension in a child who has high blood pressure regularly. Difference from normal values ​​is often observed in healthy children from 8 and more years. This is due to the peculiarities of their body and usually does not require intervention.

However, hypertension is quite a serious diagnosis for a child. It can be caused by too much blood pressure, which the cardiovascular system hardly copes with. This disease leads to:

  1. Lack of rest,
  2. Excessive physical activity
  3. Obesity or a tendency to a given condition,
  4. Experiencing stress.

Increased pressure is much more often diagnosed in adolescents. This is due to hormonal changes that affect all body systems.

In any case, it is undesirable to leave without attention the signs of increased blood pressure in children and adolescents. If the blood pressure indicators are going too high, it is worthwhile to show the child to the doctor.

Medicinal plants help to cope with the signs of hypertension:

Decoctions and infusions of these herbs can be avoided if the pressure rises very rarely. If this condition is observed systematically, the doctor will select medications based on herbal ingredients for the young patient.

If you want to immediately reduce blood pressure, you should use a compress with table or apple cider vinegar. It is required to attach to the heels and leave for about 25 minutes.

To prevent new pressure jumps helps proper rest, proper nutrition and healthy sleep.

It is important to ensure a normal rest.

Reduced pressure

Often in children can be called low blood pressure. Hypotension is usually accompanied by frequent colds, mood swings and fatigue. Therefore, parents need to pay attention to these moments in order to recognize cardiovascular disease in a timely manner.

Low blood pressure is not always a sign of illness. You need to start worrying if the child is constantly worried about these symptoms:

  1. Headaches,
  2. Weakness in the body
  3. Drowsiness,
  4. Dizziness
  5. Nausea.

In this case, a full examination of the child is required. To recognize hypotension, the doctor must exclude kidney and heart disease, as well as a possible metabolic disorder.

As with hypertension, a medicinal herb can help a child with signs of hypotonic disease:

On the basis of these plants are made tinctures, which can be purchased at any pharmacy.

To prevent a drop in blood pressure, the child needs to move a lot, allocate enough time to rest, and avoid emotional overstrain.

Quite often, children experience hypotension after they survive an infectious disease. In this case, it is not necessary to take medication to improve overall well-being. Other methods help solve the unpleasant problem. A child who suffers from low blood pressure is recommended to increase physical exertion to a reasonable limit, avoid stressful situations, enrich your diet with healthy products of plant origin and regularly spend time in the fresh air.

Any change in the behavior or well-being of the baby often indicates that not everything is in order with his body. If parents responsibly take care of their own child, they will notice the first signs of illness that is associated with pressure.

About blood pressure

With the passage of blood through the circulatory system, there is pressure on the elastic walls of blood vessels. The impact force depends on the size of the latter. The larger the vessel, the more forcefully the blood presses against its walls. Blood pressure (BP) during the day may change, it is influenced by many internal and external factors, for example:

  • heart rate,
  • obstructions inside the veins and arteries (cholesterol plaques),
  • the elasticity of the vessel walls,
  • amount of blood, its viscosity.

Pressure is necessary for the normal movement of blood through the vessels and capillaries, as well as to ensure the metabolic processes in the body. Blood pressure has two indicators: systolic (upper), diastolic (lower).

Systole is the condition of the heart muscle at the time of its contraction. At the same time a significant amount of blood is sent to the aorta, which leads to dilation of the vessel walls. They resist, increasing the pressure to the maximum value. This indicator is called systolic (SAD).

After the contraction of the heart muscle has occurred, the valve closes tightly enough and the walls of the vessels begin to force out the resulting blood. It gradually spreads through the capillaries, while the pressure decreases to the minimum mark. This indicator is called diastolic (DBP). Another important point that determines the state of human health is the difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure. This indicator is called pulse pressure, it should not exceed 40-50 mm Hg. Art. or be below 30.

Norm blood pressure in a child

Since the elasticity of the walls of blood vessels in children and adolescents is much higher, blood pressure indicators in children are reduced and this is considered the physiological norm. The younger the child, the lower these numbers.

Normal pressure in a child after birth is 70-45 mm. Hg Art. Deviations of several units or even a dozen are not considered a disease. However, by the end of the first year of life, these figures become significantly larger and gradually increase with age. At 7-8 years old, pressure values ​​are normally about 105/70.

Important: In different age periods, normal rates differ in children of different sexes. For example, in boys these figures are higher at the age of 5–8 years, and also after 16, and for girls at 3–4 years and at 12–14 years.

Various factors can influence the strength of blood flow and, accordingly, blood pressure in children:

  • physical and emotional overload
  • high body temperature,
  • sleep disturbances
  • Times of Day,
  • weight, height, and also body type,
  • atmospheric phenomena
  • heredity and more.

For example, in lean babies, normal children's pressure often deviates to the lower side, but overweight is a factor contributing to high blood pressure. Caffeine intake can also affect these numbers.

Due to the fact that the rate of pressure in children is individual, special formulas have been developed, which are used to calculate standard indicators:

  1. In children under one year, the systolic pressure is calculated as follows: 76 + number of months multiplied by two. Diastolic - 2 / 3-1 / 2 of the value of the GARDEN.
  2. After a year, the formula looks like this: 90 + double the number of years for systolic pressure and 60 + the number of years for diastolic.

Normal indicators of pressure in children are listed in the table by age:

Norms of blood pressure in children (mm Hg. Art.)

How to measure blood pressure in a child

In order for the indicators on the tonometer to be reliable, it is necessary to follow a few simple rules:

  1. Measurements are made in the morning, the baby must be in a calm state.
  2. If the indicators are removed at a different time of day, this should be done an hour after the walk or meal.
  3. Before the procedure is to reduce the baby to the toilet.
  4. Children younger than two years old measurements are made in the supine position, older - can sit.
  5. A hand that is prepared for measurements should not hang. It must be placed parallel to the body on the side table, the inside of the brush up.
  6. For babies, a special small cuff is used, and when taking blood pressure readings in adolescents, the standard one will do.
  7. The cuff is fixed on the forearm and measured in accordance with the instructions to the tonometer.
  8. Measurement should be carried out 2-3 times with an interval of 5-7 minutes.
  9. For the first time in children, blood pressure is measured on two hands, and further measurements should be carried out on the arm where the indicators were higher.

Automatic or semi-automatic tonometers independently measure pressure and give the final result. If a mechanical apparatus is used, then a phonendoscope is required, with which the beginning of the pulsation in the vein and its termination are heard. Figures corresponding to these points will be considered as indicators of blood pressure. Blood pressure standards in children are compared with the data obtained and if there are deviations, conduct the necessary studies.


To determine the pathologies leading to drops in blood pressure, the doctor must have accurate information about the indicators. For this, it is recommended to monitor blood pressure three times a day for several days. The doctor then performs a survey of the mother and child, during which he ascertains the nature of the complaints, the course of the pregnancy, the period of birth, possible family heredity.

In addition, additional research will be required. The child is given directions to:

  • examination of the fundus,
  • electrocardiogram
  • brain rheoencephalography,
  • general and biochemical blood tests,
  • analysis of venous blood for hormones,
  • консультации кардиолога, невролога, эндокринолога и прочих специалистов при необходимости.

In more complex cases, ultrasound of the heart and other internal organs, computed tomography of the brain and other studies according to indications may be required.

Abnormalities, their causes and treatment

As mentioned above, anything can cause a change in pressure. If your baby has arterial hypertension, then you need to know that it is primary and secondary. Primary usually develops on the background of external factors: emotional, physical overload, other phenomena that affect the child’s condition. However, after the body rests, the pressure readings again meet the standards.

With secondary hypertension, abnormalities can persist for up to several days, which indicates the presence of various diseases. These can be pathologies of the kidneys, heart, obesity, problems with the endocrine system, anemia, infectious diseases.

Causes of pressure increase

The factors affecting the increase in pressure include excessive exercise, a variety of stresses, heredity. Improper nutrition can also contribute to a change in indicators: overeating, irregular meals or too poor a diet, as well as a diet with a large amount of sodium (salt). Severe overheating of the body quite often leads to an increase in blood pressure indicators.

It is not recommended to raise or lower the pressure on your own. Illiterate actions can only lead to complications and aggravate the condition of the baby. If all of the above factors are missing, the child is at rest, and the increased rates persist for several hours or even days, you should consult a doctor to identify the problem.

If the cause of high blood pressure was hormonal adjustment of the body in adolescence, then it is not scary, and with time everything will go back to normal. But if pathologies that lead to blood pressure jumps are detected in the body, competent treatment will be required, and amateur actions in this case may even be dangerous to the life of the child.

Therapy for high blood pressure in children

Treatment of high blood pressure in a child is started if a disease has been diagnosed leading to such abnormalities. Symptomatic therapy in this case does not give a lasting effect. If the cause is vegetative-vascular dystonia or intracranial hypertension, then the child needs sedative therapy. Perhaps the appointment of "Elenium", "Seduxen". Also need to normalize mode. It is necessary to allocate time for daily walks in the fresh air, as well as physical therapy. It is possible to attract a child to various sports, but so that the load increases gradually.

If the pressure increase is isolated - not associated with any pathologies, then treatment with beta-blockers will be required. Often prescribed "Inderal", "Obzidan." Also for the treatment of high blood pressure may use "Reserpine" or "Rauvazana." The dosage of the drug is selected separately in each case. It depends on the condition of the child and the indicators on the tonometer. Perhaps the appointment of diuretic drugs: "Hypothiazide", "Veroshpiron."

Causes of hypotension

If the blood pressure in a child falls below 100/60, then they talk about the development of hypotension (arterial hypotension). A special risk group in this case is schoolchildren. Most often, this condition is diagnosed in girls. However, deviations of blood pressure from the norm in a lower direction can also be observed in newborns. This is often associated with intrauterine growth disorders, various infections, or premature birth.

Physicians consider the most common causes of low blood pressure to be:

  • genetic predisposition, the probability of hypotension in this case can reach 80%,
  • congenital anatomical abnormalities, birth injuries, abnormal and untimely overgrowth of fontanel,
  • hormonal changes during puberty,
  • frequent psycho-emotional shakes, excessive training loads,
  • chronic diseases of the respiratory system and ENT organs,
  • low physical activity
  • diets, poor nutrition, vitamin deficiency.

The cause of hypotension can be a variety of diseases and traumatic factors. These include:

  • metabolic disorders,
  • endocrine system pathologies,
  • problems of the digestive system,
  • malfunction of the pituitary gland,
  • predisposition to diabetes mellitus or its presence,
  • head injuries,
  • diseases of the cardiovascular system
  • injuries associated with blood loss,
  • Iron-deficiency anemia,
  • kidney disease
  • disorders of cerebral circulation.

Hypotension treatment

Low pressure is very often accompanied by a headache, and parents, trying to alleviate the condition of the baby, give him analgesics. These are incorrect actions, because without making a diagnosis, the use of painkillers is contraindicated. These drugs can blur the picture of the course of the disease and complicate the identification of the main pathology.

In children under 10 years of age, low-pressure medication is not recommended. To relieve the condition of the baby and relieve the pain, you can offer him to drink a cup of weak coffee (natural) with milk. Hot chocolate, sweet black tea can also increase blood pressure.

From 11-12 years old, hypotension is treated with special drugs that the doctor prescribes. The frequency of administration and the dose should also be discussed with the doctor and it is absolutely impossible to change them yourself. Most often in pediatric practice for the treatment of such conditions are used:

Adults for headaches often take "Citramon." Children should not be given it categorically, since in addition to caffeine, acetylsalicylic acid is the active ingredient in this preparation. It contributes to blood thinning, which can lead to problems with clotting. Drugs containing caffeine do not apply if the child has low blood pressure is accompanied by a rapid pulse.

How can parents help?

To alleviate the condition of the child with frequent and prolonged pressure drops to a greater or lesser side and the accompanying symptoms, the following should be done:

  • to try to normalize the psychological situation in the school and create a pleasant atmosphere for the kid in the house,
  • observe the day regimen corresponding to the child’s age, properly organize weekends and rest periods,
  • limit watching TV and computer games,
  • increase physical activity, depending on the condition of the small patient, you can go swimming, horse riding,
  • it is necessary to organize daily walks in the fresh air for at least 2 hours away from highways and other areas with a polluted atmosphere,
  • psychic overloads should also be excluded, it is possible to refuse additional circles or classes with a tutor,
  • provide the child with a balanced diet, organize 4-5 single meals, including daily at least 300 grams of vegetables and fruits,
  • with increased pressure should reduce the use of salt, spices, seasonings and harmful products,
  • with low blood pressure, calcium-containing products must be added to the diet: milk, kefir, cottage cheese,
  • massage of the neck area is required.

It is also worth mentioning the effects of nicotine and alcohol on pressure indicators. Therefore, control is needed for adolescents who, trying to appear adults, begin to indulge in these substances.

Blood pressure - the general concept

The system of blood flow in the body is the heart and blood vessels. They are filled with blood, providing nutrients and oxygen to organs and tissues. The main role in this system is assigned to the heart - the natural pump that pumps blood. With a contraction, it throws blood into the arteries. Blood pressure in them is called arterial.

By blood pressure doctors understand the force with which blood acts on blood vessels. The greater their Ø, the higher the blood pressure. Pushing portions of the blood into the circulatory system, the heart and creates the appropriate pressure. Normal pressure is important for metabolic processes, since with the blood all nutrients are transported to the organs, slags and toxins are removed.

Pressure control methods

Use direct and indirect methods of blood pressure control. An invasive method is required during surgery, when a probe and a sensor are inserted into the artery. Non-invasive methods are compression options:

  • Palpation - the most difficult method that requires certain skills. By pressing the artery with your fingers, it is important to catch the moment of maximum and minimum pulse in the area that is below the squeeze area.
  • The auscultatory method of the surgeon Korotkov is a reference method from 1905 to the present day. It involves the use of a tonometer, pressure gauge and stethoscope.
  • The oscillometric method underlies the principle of operation of most automatic blood pressure monitors. It gives you the opportunity to check blood pressure on the shoulder, knee, wrist.
  • Doppler ultrasound determines only systolic blood pressure with ultrasound. It is used more often for newborns and infants.

Modern tonometers allow you to measure the pressure of children at home without special medical training. Yet the elementary rules for measuring blood pressure children need to know.

Norm HELL: baby up to a year

The elastic vascular bed and dense grid of capillaries are the main reasons that babies have blood pressure much lower than their parents. In the newborn, the pressure indicators are 60-96 / 40-50 mm Hg. Art. With the strengthening of the tonus of the walls, the blood pressure also grows, by the end of the first year it ranges from 80/40 to 112/74 mm Hg. Art., taking into account the weight of the baby.

If there is no data on blood pressure in children (the norm is in the table), for orientation, you can use the calculations: 76 + 2 n, where n is the infant's age in months. For newborns, the width of the chamber of a baby cuff is 3 cm, for older babies it is 5 cm. The procedure is repeated 3 times, focusing on the minimum result. In infants, only systolic blood pressure is checked, determining it by palpation.

Norma AD: baby 2-3 years old

After a year, the growth of blood pressure slows down. By the age of 2-3 years, the average upper pressure is at the level of 100-112 mm Hg. Art., the bottom - 60-74 mm Hg. Blood pressure can be considered above the limit of normal, if the alarming result lasts for 3 weeks. The formula for the specification of the norm: systolic blood pressure - (90 + 2n), diastolic - (60 + n), where n is the number of full years.

Norm HELL: child 3-5 years old

Studying the parameters of the table, it is easy to see that from 3 to 5 years the dynamics of growth of blood pressure is slowing down. Systolic blood pressure in these children - 100-116 mm Hg. St, diastolic - 60-76 mm Hg. Art. It is necessary to take into account that the data of the tonometer do not coincide during the day: in the daytime they reach a maximum, by the night they fall even after midnight, up to 5 hours, they are minimal.

Norma AD: schoolboy 6-9 years

From the tabular data it is clear that the minimum indicators of pressure remain at the same positions, only the highest parameters are slightly increased. The rate of age is 100-122 / 60-78 mm Hg. Art.

The beginning of school life is characterized by deviations, as the child’s lifestyle changes. After unusual emotional stress, reduced physical activity, children complain of fatigue, headache, and naughty. It is important to be attentive to the condition of the child during this period.

Norma AD: teenager 10-12 years old

The initial period of puberty is characterized by changes in blood pressure. To a greater extent this applies to girls who are ahead of the stronger sex in the pace of physical development.

Despite the average values ​​of blood pressure from 110/70 to 126/82 mm Hg. Art., physicians consider the norm the upper limit - 120 mm. Hg Art. This indicator also depends on the body type: high and thin asthenics usually have lower pressure in comparison with peers of the athletic type.

Norma blood pressure in boys and girls 12-15 years

The transitional age gives teenagers and their parents a lot of surprises. High loads at school, hours spent at the computer, stress, unstable hormones can provoke both hypertension and hypotension.

In normal pressure in children, the table shows closer to adult values: 110-70 / 136-86 mm Hg. Art., because by the age of 12 the vascular system is already finishing its formation. With drops, tachycardia, fainting, a change in heart rate, headaches, and dizziness are possible.

With age, ailments usually disappear, to eliminate undesirable consequences, it will not be superfluous to be examined.

Complications of pressure drops in children

Doctors have a concept - target organs. So called the organs that suffer in the first place. Usually, there are problems with the heart (ischemic disease, myocardial infarction), problems of the central nervous system, brain (strokes), damage to the organs of vision, including blindness, renal failure. The danger lies in the fact that arterial hypertension in children is usually asymptomatic.

A child, especially a small one, does not complain about his state of health. There are individual signs that parents must pay attention to. Many of them are similar to the prerequisites for hypertension in adults.

  • Headache,
  • Nosebleeds,
  • Nausea, vomiting,
  • Weakness tiredness
  • Neurological manifestations: convulsions, paresis, paralysis,
  • Visual impairment, P
  • Change gait.

If the child fainted, you must show him to the pediatrician. The doctor will refer you to a specialist for further examination.

Arterial hypertension has a hereditary component: if there are hypertensive patients in the family, the child's blood pressure should be periodically monitored, since 45-60% of them have burdened heredity. In order for a child to become hypertonic, exposure and modifying factors are necessary: ​​stress, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, sports overload.

If the family has a variant of hypotension, then low blood pressure may be an individual variant of the norm for the child. Reduced pressure may be adaptive in nature, for example, in athletes or those who travel to the highlands. This option is rather an exception, because the symptoms of low pressure can talk about heart defects, myocarditis, endocrine disorders (problems of the thyroid gland, adrenal insufficiency are associated with low pressure).

How to normalize blood pressure in children

Increased blood pressure is noted in 13% of children. This is due to inadequate load on the heart muscle, high tone of the arteries, vascular spasms. There are primary and secondary hypertension. The first form is due to hormonal changes, unbearable stress for the child’s psyche, lack of sleep, overloading at the computer or in the sports section, and conflicts with peers. In addition to external causes, there are also hidden factors: heart and kidney failure, problems with the endocrine system.

Secondary hypertension provoke severe diseases of the kidneys, heart, endocrine and nervous system, intoxication, head injuries. In the context of such disorders, there are threatening pathologies: a pituitary tumor, a narrowing of the renal artery, adrenal neoplasms, osteoporosis, heart defects, encephalitis.

Hypotension in children is physiological and pathological. Low pressure affects 10% of children. Physiological prerequisites can be hereditary (constitution of the body, genetic predisposition to hypotension), and external (excess oxygen, adverse weather conditions, inadequate physical exertion) causes. Pathological hypotension provoke:

  • Respiratory infections,
  • Bronchitis, tonsillitis with complications,
  • Stress and mental disorders,
  • Physical overload or lack thereof,
  • Beriberi, anemia,
  • Birth injury, allergies,
  • Diabetes,
  • Thyroid problems,
  • Heart failure.

To normalize blood pressure in children with hypotension, it is necessary to control the amount of fluid consumed, adjust the salt rate, you can use tea, coffee, echinacea, Chinese lemongrass, pantocrine, eleutherococcus extract. To adjust the mode of rest and study.

Norms of blood pressure in children is a relative concept. If the child is worried, the tonometer may show an overestimated result. In this case, you need to measure the pressure again. Objective will be the result of 3-4 measurements with an interval of 5 minutes. For a healthy child there is no need for frequent measurement of blood pressure, but if the baby is sick, went to the hospital, the pressure must be controlled without fail, it is advisable to have a special diary.

Regular exercise improves blood flow and normalizes blood pressure. Come up with fun exercises with children, spend it in a playful way, and the sea of ​​positive emotions is guaranteed.

Pressure is an important parameter of a child’s health, but not the most important one. So treat him without bestial seriousness. BP is a variable thing that can fluctuate during the day, depending on mood and physical exertion. The main thing is that the child be healthy and not give a reason for constant control of blood pressure.

What is blood pressure

Every second the blood in the body moves along a system of tubes of different diameters, providing each organ with useful substances and the amount of oxygen it needs. The driving mechanism is the heart, which plays the role of a living pump. Due to the reduction of myocardial muscle fibers, blood is released into the arteries. The level of pressure in them is called arterial.

Следует понимать, что артериальное давление — лабильный, меняющийся показатель, даже на протяжение суток, а то и нескольких часов

При классическом измерении АД получают две его разновидности:

  • систолическое (верхнее) – развивается в период максимального сокращения сердечной мышцы,
  • диастолическое (нижнее) - characterizes the passive advance of blood through the vessels during diastole.

After intensive contraction of the heart (systole), a period of diastole begins, when the myocardium completely relaxes. Knowing the lower and upper blood pressure, you can set the pulse pressure. This is the difference between these two indicators, which normally is 40-60 mm Hg. Art. No less important indicator in the diagnosis of heart disease is the pulse rate, which should not exceed 70-80 beats / min.

Rates for babies under 1 year

Children's arteries are more elastic, due to which the vascular tone in the baby is slightly lower. The rapid growth leads to a constant increase in blood pressure during the first year of life. Vascular tone rises, walls of arteries and veins become stronger.

Normal rates vary throughout the year:

  • for a newborn 60–96 / 40–50 mm Hg. Art.,
  • at the end of the first month of life, 80–112 / 40–74 mm Hg. Art.,
  • in children 2–12 months of age according to the generally accepted table, the indicators may fluctuate within 90–112 / 50–74 mm of mercury. Art.

If in the first year of life, blood pressure increases very quickly, then after a year, by 2-3 years, its growth also occurs, but more smoothly, slowly

Can a month-old baby have pressure like his one-year-old neighbor? It is not surprising that the rates of blood pressure in one month and one year almost coincide. Every baby develops in its own way. Some children may be distinguished by a gradual increase in blood pressure, while in others there is a rapid development of the cardiovascular system.

What should be the pressure of the child in 2-3 years

Increased interest in the outside world requires considerable effort from the child’s body. The crumb constantly moves, expending a large amount of energy. In 2-3 years, rates range from 100/60 mm Hg. Art. to 112/74 mm Hg. Art. The heart muscle contracts with a new force, thanks to which the blood moves faster, providing organs and tissues with new beneficial substances. Blood pressure depends on heredity, physical activity and the state of the circulatory system at the moment.

Norms of pressure in children 4–5 years old

The organism is still being formed, and therefore fluctuations in the indices within 100–110 / 65–75 mm Hg are possible. Art. At this age, most preschoolers begin to attend kindergarten. In winter, many preschoolers are prone to infectious diseases, which has a significant effect on vascular tone. Getting away from home and meeting with caregivers is a serious stress, leading to a spasm of blood vessels.

An interesting fact is that up to 5 years the blood pressure in boys and girls is about the same, after reaching the age of 5 years and up to 9-10 years, the blood pressure in boys is slightly higher

Blood pressure in children aged 6–12 years

The younger and middle school age is always associated with a serious psychological burden. The curriculum requires considerable effort from the student. In addition to good grades, most children try their best to please teachers and classmates.

The pressure in the child should be compared with the norms for age:

  • at 6–9 years, 105 / 120–70 / 80 mmHg. Art., indicators are more or less stable and little dependent on gender,
  • at 10–12 years 110/120–75/80 mm Hg. due to earlier onset of puberty in girls, rates may be somewhat higher.

11–12 years are the boundary between childhood and adolescence. In connection with acceleration, some children begin to grow rapidly. The increase in bone length with the slow development of internal organs creates an additional load on the vessels. Moderate exercise will help strengthen the heart muscle and stabilize the nervous system.

Formation of blood pressure

Blood pressure in children increases gradually - by 1 mm Hg. Art. monthly after birth. Up to 9 years, it is lower than that of an adult. This is due to the low tone of the vessels and the high elasticity of their walls. The lumen of vessels gradually increases, the number of capillaries grows.

Norm blood pressure also depends on gender:

  • After 12 months of life and up to 4 years, it is higher in girls.
  • At the age of 5 years, the values ​​are approximately equal.
  • After 10 years, the numbers are higher in boys. Such dynamics persists up to 17 years.

Blood pressure is formed from heart rate, cardiac output, vascular resistance, and circulating blood volume. The heart, working as a pump, creates pressure. It is opposed by the vascular wall.

Blood pressure in children (table)

The values ​​depend on the age of the child and body weight. To identify abnormalities in blood pressure in children, a table by age is presented below.

Pressure standards are calculated on the basis of average statistical measurements by age. Not always deviations from these values ​​suggest pathology.

  1. The first 12 months. The baby has systolic blood pressure of 60-96 mmHg. Art., diastolic 40-50 mm Hg. Art. At 1 month systolic - 60-112, diastolic 40-74. By 12 months, it reaches 80-112 / 40-74.
  2. School period. From 6-7 years, the level of physical activity decreases sharply, and emotional level increases. The school period is accompanied by a slight increase in blood pressure. For example, in babies 8 years old, systolic pressure is in the range of 100-120 mm Hg. Art. In 8 years, the rate of diastolic blood pressure - 60-78.
  3. Puberty. Hormonal changes occur in the period of 10–12 years in girls and 11–13 years in boys. In 10 years, the systolic pressure in a child varies from 110/120. Low BP occurs in high adolescents with low body mass. In athletic build boys, the numbers will be higher. Diastolic pressure in children 10 years is in the range of 70-80 mm Hg. Art.
  4. Senior school period. In girls and boys of 15 years, the rate is close to that of an adult: systolic - 110/130, diastolic - 70/86. Normal pressure in a teenager may increase to 139 mm Hg. Art., as the period is characterized by an unstable hormonal background. If a child is healthy, it is reduced by itself without causing unpleasant symptoms.

The formula for calculating blood pressure

For quick determination of optimal values, pediatricians use formulas. For children under 12 months, the norm is calculated in this way:

  • v 76 + 2n, where n is the number of months (to calculate systolic blood pressure),
  • v half or third systolic pressure (for diastolic).

Children older than 12 months, blood pressure is calculated according to the following algorithm:

  • systolic - 90 + 2n, where n is the number of years,
  • diastolic - 60 + n, where n is the number of years.

For example, for a 9-year-old baby, systolic blood pressure is - 108, diastolic - 69, and for a teenager of 14 years it corresponds to 118/74.

Also used formulas for calculating the maximum and minimum values.

Blood pressure norm in children

Normal pressure in children is very different from adult indicators.

The values ​​are influenced by the age of the child, he also determines the following parameters:

  • the degree of elasticity of the vessel walls,
  • Capillary mesh size
  • lumen in arteries and veins.

The younger the body, the better condition of the circulatory system and lower blood pressure - the blood moves freely through the vessels with minimal pressure on their walls.

The development of AD in the first 12 months after birth is developing dynamically. During this period, it stably rises to 1 mm Hg. Art. every 4 weeks. After a year, the increase process slows down.

Why does a child have high blood pressure?

External causes can affect pressure and temporarily increase its performance:

  • injury,
  • emotional stress or severe stress,
  • physical fatigue.
If a child has a constant blood pressure above normal, this can be a sign of moderate hypertension.

The development of pathological processes in a young organism is capable of provoking sharp and regular jumps.

  1. Cardiac pathology - anomalies in the valve structure, congenital defects, poor conductivity of the heart muscle, rhythm disturbance.
  2. Kidney diseases (cause an increase in diastolic pressure) - dysplasia, defects in the structure, malignant seals in the tissues, injury.
  3. Endocrine problems. Crohn's disease or tumor processes in the parathyroid glands violate the metabolism in the tissues, which leads to excessive production of hormones and biologically active substances that narrow the lumen in the vessels and cause hypertension.
  4. Changes in the renal vessels of congenital or acquired nature. Pathologies provoke secondary hypertension and act mainly on upper (systolic) blood pressure.
  5. Hereditary tendency to increased pressure. This happens when one of the parents suffers from hypertension.

Thyroid diseases cause an increase in pressure

Increased pressure may be the result of long-term drug treatment with hormonal drugs, sympathomimetics. The condition of blood pressure in adolescents is influenced by the use of alcohol or smoking.

Why does a child have low blood pressure?

As the body matures, the pressure gradually increases. If a child has frequent jumps downward, we can talk about the development of serious diseases.

The provoking factors of hypotension are:

  • disorders in the endocrine system, which lead to a decrease in venous tone and loss of elasticity by the vessels,
  • problems in blood formation, in particular, anemia,
  • abnormalities in the blood circulation caused by injuries or seals in the brain,
  • reduction of thyroid hormones (disorders in the thyroid), which weakens the tone of blood vessels.

Anemia may cause low pressure in a child

How to measure the pressure in a child

The measurement of blood pressure in children has its own characteristics and is slightly different from a similar procedure in an adult.

  1. It is recommended to carry out the procedure in the morning one hour after eating or walking. The child must visit the toilet, not subjected to stress.
  2. In the first measurement, you need to use both hands to determine where the pressure is higher.
  3. A child up to 2 years old is carried out in a prone position, children older than this age - sitting, legs should not hang down (if the baby does not reach the floor, install a stand).
  4. To measure the use of the cuff size, as the component of the adult tonometer can distort the results of the study. For measurement accuracy, the cuff should be equal to ¾ the distance from the armpit to the bend of the elbow.

Further, the procedure is no different from the usual sequence in adults. A phonendoscope is applied to the vein in the elbow bend, air is injected with a pear and, after the air has been released, the beginning (systolic pressure) and the end of the pulsation (diastolic BP) are noted.

The pressure in children is always lower than in adults. The younger the body, the higher the elasticity of the vessels and the wider their lumen, and, therefore, the onslaught of blood on the sheath of arteries is minimal. As the child grows up, the blood pressure gradually increases and reaches stable levels by the end of adolescence (110–120 / 70–80). External factors can affect blood pressure in childhood - stress, overwork, injuries, physical exertion, or internal diseases - heart, endocrine, renal pathologies.

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Pressure standards in adolescents aged 13–16

Light and cloudless adolescence is a happy exception to the rule than the norm. Due to the intensive growth and active puberty, the circulatory system is forced to work in an enhanced mode. Teenagers are by nature very suspicious. Increased or decreased pressure in them most often has a neurogenic nature and is easily normalized with the help of soothing infusions.

From 12-15 years old (according to some data from 11-17) in the life of children comes a new stage. This is a period of hormonal adjustment, puberty.

Norms of blood pressure in adolescents are:

  • at 13–15 years varies within 110–120 / 75–80 mm Hg. Art.,
  • at the age of 15–16, the figures correspond to the standards for adults 115–120 / 70–80 mm Hg. Art.

In men after 16 years, the rates are slightly higher than in women. People who are systematically involved in sports have stronger heart and vessels that are resistant to adverse environmental factors. Thin adolescents are more likely to be hypotensive, and fat ones have a tendency to atherosclerosis and hypertension.

Causes and symptoms of high blood pressure

Before you suspect a hypertension of your offspring, it is worth remembering about the hemodynamic parameters that are normal for him. If the child felt fine all her life, having 105/70 mm Hg. Art., then even the indicators in 115/80 can cause him to have symptoms of hypertension. One cup of coffee, safe for an adult, can lead to an increase in blood pressure in the crumbs, like a scratched knee or a broken toy.

Symptoms of hypertension affect the behavior of the baby:

  • he becomes irritable
  • does not want to communicate with anyone
  • says "I have a headache and a heart ache,"
  • complains of feeling bad,
  • refuses toys.

If, in a single measurement, you find some excess or decrease in indicators relative to age norms, this is not a reason to rush into panic.

To normalize vascular tone, it is enough to rest and sleep well. During an exacerbation, it is better to abstain from school for a day or two. If symptoms of hypertension appear only during training and disappear on weekends, this is a reason to think. A school student can be hard at school and need extra classes. Less commonly, hypertension occurs on the background of endocrine pathologies, heart or kidney damage.

What plants have antihypertensive properties?

To feed your child with pills is not safe at all. In the case of a pronounced increase in blood pressure should go to the hospital, where he will be selected the appropriate treatment. To improve the effectiveness of therapy need a calm environment. Permanent quarrels of parents, poor living conditions and conflicts in the school or kindergarten can lead to hypertension.

To cope with the first symptoms of the disease, it is necessary to resort to medicinal plants, the most popular of them:

To reduce the pressure it is useful to give the child tea with mint.

Herbal preparations do well with the increase in pressure, which was caused by severe stress. Hypertensive crisis is able to hit even small children, which should be remembered by caring parents. In this case, for the provision of first aid, it is necessary to use half-tablets of “Andipal” or “Nifedipine” with the expectation of mass. Proper nutrition, exercise and walking in fresh air contribute to the rapid recovery from the disease.

Causes and symptoms of low blood pressure

Symptoms of hypertension are often found among children and adolescents. In most of them, the work of the circulatory system is normalized by the onset of maturity. Due to the uneven load during the day (in the morning cartoons, and in the evening writing) there is a rapid depletion of the body's resources. If a son or daughter does not have a good academic record, it is not advisable to send a child to a specialized school, as increased demands lead to severe stress. Sometimes hypotension can occur independently on the background of increased growth in adolescence.

Symptoms of hypotension:

  • violation of cerebral circulation - pressing pain in the temples, dizziness, feeling of heaviness,
  • increased susceptibility to weather changes, magnetic storms,
  • cognitive decline (memory impairment, decreased concentration, lack of motivation),
  • fatigue, weakness, drowsiness during the day,
  • pressing pain in the heart, rapid heartbeat, feeling short of breath, yawning,
  • forever cold limbs, tingling in the legs.

Due to permanent employment, not every parent is able to notice the first signs of hypotension. If their child has a painful appearance, complains of increased fatigue, pale and apathetic - this is a wake-up call. It is necessary to measure his pulse and body temperature, as well as pass a general analysis of blood and urine.

How to increase pressure in a natural way?

Adult hypotonia sufferers are almost inseparable from coffee. Giving a strong drink to a teenager, and especially a preschooler, should not be. Coffee has only a short-term effect, after an hour or two all the symptoms return. Drinks containing caffeine, detrimental effect on the heart and blood vessels in the unformed children's body. It is better to drink a child with weak tea or give a slice of dark chocolate.

Among the plants that increase blood pressure, there are:

Their tinctures are sold in every pharmacy. To increase blood circulation in the brain, one should move as much as possible, rest more and be less nervous. It is useful to attend a dance, athletics section or rhythmic gymnastics classes. Children with asthenia with poor academic performance are often prescribed nootropic drugs, among them: “Piracetam”, “Cinnarizine”, “Phenibut” and others.

Originally posted 2017-08-18 16:53:52.

Briefly about blood pressure

The cardiovascular system, as you might guess, consists of the heart and blood vessels. Their maturation in prenatal development is closely related, and after the birth of the child they cannot be considered separately.

The task of the heart is to pump blood through the body. With each blow, it throws blood, portion by portion, into the vessels - a kind of pipeline of our body, which reaches almost every part of our body. However, vessels, in contrast to water pipes, have a very important feature - elasticity.

For example, if a child runs, the blood vessels in his muscles will expand to take in more blood, which will actively nourish the muscles and saturate them with oxygen. То же самое произойдет и в коже, чтобы кровь отдавала избыток тепла через её поверхность. А вот сосуды пищеварительной системы придут в тонус и сократятся – переваривание пищи может подождать. Этот механизм лежит в основе регулирования артериального давления.

So, the blood pressure in a person will depend on two processes: the release of blood by our heart and the tone of the walls of blood vessels. This is reflected in two pressure figures: systolic (or upper) and diastolic (lower).

  • systolic is the pressure created by the action of blood on the vascular wall in the contraction phase of the heart (systole), therefore it is otherwise called cardiac,
  • diastolic is the pressure during the relaxation phase of the heart (diastole), it depends on the tension of the vessels at this moment, so it is also called vascular.

Thus, the more often the heart contracts and the more blood is ejected, and the narrower the diameter of the lumen, the higher the pressure. And vice versa: the less the heart contracts and the larger the lumen of the vessels, the less pressure. These processes are regulated by the nervous and endocrine systems, and they are in constant complex dynamic equilibrium.

Methods for measuring blood pressure

Doctors most often measure pressure by the so-called auscultatory method, namely, with the help of a tonometer and a stethoscope (usually this device is called a mechanical tonometer). The doctor puts a cuff on the shoulder of the child, builds pressure in it. Then it slowly releases air from the cuff and with the help of a stethoscope listens to the moment of appearance of tones, i.e. pulse beats (the number on the tonometer indicated by the arrow at this moment, will mean systolic pressure), and the moment of disappearance of the tones (the arrow will indicate the number of diastolic pressure ).

At home, people usually use automatic tonometers (they use an oscillographic method of measuring pressure). The principle of their operation is almost the same as that of mechanical tonometers, only the device independently registers the moment of appearance and disappearance of tones. With it, pressure can be measured on the shoulder or wrist.

Blood pressure norm for children under 1 year

In infants and children of the first year of life, the network of capillaries is very abundantly developed, and the walls of the vessels are thin and elastic. The little heart of the baby is still unable to push out a large amount of blood. Therefore, the blood pressure of newborn crumbs is only 60 - 96 (systolic) / 40 - 50 (diastolic) millimeters of mercury.

During the entire first year of life, the vessels and the heart develop very quickly, the walls of the vessels become less elastic, muscle fibers only develop, and the blood pressure gradually increases, so by the end of the year the systolic can reach 90-112 mm. Hg Art., and diastolic - 50-74 mm Hg. Art.

Blood pressure norm for children 10 - 12 years old

During this age period, children re-enter a phase of rapid development. An important factor in this period is puberty, in which girls are slightly ahead of boys. Systolic blood pressure will vary between 110 - 126 mm. Hg Art., and diastolic - 70 - 82 mm. Hg Art.

Blood pressure norms in children aged 13–15

Puberty continues and ends, boys catch up in the development of girls, and the values ​​of normal blood pressure (like most other health indicators) have already become equal to adults. In adolescents, systolic from 110 to 136 mm can be considered normal pressure. Hg Art., and diastolic from 70 to 86 mm. Hg Art.

For convenience, you can also use the table below. It shows the norms of blood pressure indicators by age and their range.

Blood pressure table in children

Age Blood pressure (mm. Hg. Art.)

Minimum Minimum Maximum Maximum

Up to 2 months 60 96 40 50

2 months - 1 year 90 112 50 74

2 - 3 years 100 112 60 74

3 - 5 years 100 116 60 76

6 - 9 years 100 122 60 78

10 - 12 years 110 126 70 82

13 - 15 years 110 136 70 86

What else do you need to know about children's blood pressure?

Blood pressure indicators are closely related to the physical development of children, their growth rate and body weight, and the maturation of the endocrine system. That is why the pressure in children of the same age can be different. For example, a high and thin (asthenic physique) girl will have less blood pressure than a short, dense boy, and this is absolutely normal.

When should I measure my child's blood pressure?

If you have a special children's blood pressure monitor at home, you should not torment your child with daily blood pressure measurements. However, there are times when it will be useful and help you navigate the situation.

  1. About once a year, you can measure the pressure to make sure that it is in line with the age of the child, and also to determine which numbers are comfortable for your child. Sometimes the child can be adapted to the pressure corresponding to the lower limit of the norm, and when approaching the upper limit of his state of health will deteriorate, and vice versa. It will be useful to know such individual characteristics of your baby.
  2. Headache. When your child starts attending school, his physical activity usually decreases, he spends more time reading and writing, and various stressful situations can arise. Sometimes it provokes various deviations of blood pressure, so if a child complains of pain in the head, it is worthwhile to start using a tonometer.
  3. Poisoning and infectious diseases, accompanied by vomiting and diarrhea. When a child loses fluid, it can be complicated by a very dangerous condition - dehydration. A decrease in blood pressure will be one of several indicators of the degree of dehydration (along with lethargy, dryness of the skin).

Low blood pressure - its causes, symptoms and treatment

Another name for low blood pressure is hypotension. It can be physiological - for example, when a child is sleeping, or immediately after waking up a baby, when the nervous system calms down and the heartbeat slows down. Sometimes children are just predisposed to hypotension and feel good with low pressure numbers.

Pathological hypotension is usually just a symptom of another disease or condition.

Common causes of low blood pressure are:

  • various congenital and acquired heart diseases (defects, myocarditis),
  • diabetes,
  • hypothyroidism
  • head injuries (including birth injuries),
  • anemia,
  • blood loss,
  • dehydration,
  • hypovitaminosis (lack of vitamins).

In addition, a decrease or an excess of physical exertion, frequent infectious diseases, and frequent stresses (at school, at home) can lead to a decrease in pressure. Some medicinal substances may have a side effect in the form of low blood pressure.

How can one suspect a pathological drop in blood pressure?

The following signs will help you:

  • weakness, the child gets tired faster than usual
  • headache,
  • dizziness,
  • nausea,
  • pale skin
  • sweating, moist skin,
  • discomfort in the heart,
  • fainting (short-term loss of consciousness).

If suddenly you have identified these symptoms in your child, you should show the baby to the pediatrician, whose task will be to find and find the cause of hypotension. Therefore, treatment of low pressure, as a rule, boils down to eliminating the cause of its occurrence, that is, to treating heart disease, diabetes, stopping bleeding, treating infection that led to dehydration, and so on.

If the root cause of hypotension does not lie in any other, the main disease, then it will be enough to adjust the lifestyle of the child.

  • mode of work and rest. The child should sleep at least 8 hours, this is especially important for schoolchildren,
  • planned increase in physical activity. Let the child spend more time outdoors, walk, do morning exercises. Various sports sections will be useful, especially swimming. However, do not overload the child with physical exertion,
  • healthy and varied diet. Check that the diet of the child allows him to receive and assimilate all the necessary vitamins and trace elements,
  • Protect your child from unnecessary stress in school and family.

High Blood Pressure - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Increased pressure, or hypertension, normally occurs during exercise, emotional stress, when the intensity of the heart increases. Hypertension often occurs during adolescence during a child’s hormonal development.

However, sometimes the cause of hypertension are serious diseases (then hypertension will be called secondary):

  • diseases of the kidneys and their vessels (narrowing of the arteries of the kidneys, urolithiasis, pyelonephritis),
  • endocrine diseases (thyrotoxicosis, adrenal pathology),
  • brain damage,
  • diseases of the nervous system.

Symptoms that indicate high blood pressure are varied, sometimes they are similar in manifestations to hypotension.

The main features include the following:

  • pressing pain in head
  • weakness,
  • dizziness,
  • nausea and vomiting,
  • flickering "fly" before the eyes,
  • noise in ears,
  • redness of the face.

In children, high blood pressure is rarely the only symptom, most often it manifests along with other signs that will help the doctor understand the cause of the disease. Treatment of hypertension, in the same way as hypotension, comes down to eliminating its cause, that is, treating the underlying disease.