The weight of a newborn is one of the most important indicators of its health. If the baby is full-term, but it weighs less than 2.8 kg, it is said that in utero he lacked nutrients. But if the doctors do not notice health problems, everything is in the hands of the mother. To feed the baby with breast milk or artificial formula is its task.
The weight of newborns in the first days of life is reduced. Excess fluid comes out of the body, weight is lost and with the discharge of the original feces - meconium. And Mommy in the first 3-5 days after birth has only colostrum, it is very small, only enough to satisfy hunger, but not to make fat stores. Normal weights are reduced to 10%. That is, if the child was born weighing 4 kg, after 3 days it can weigh 3.6 kg. But by the time of discharge from the maternity hospital, weight gain in newborns on breastfeeding has already begun, Mommy has a lot of breast milk. Under the condition of active breast sucking baby. If the weight continues to decline with the active sucking of the breast, this is the reason for examining the child. Perhaps there are problems with the digestive system or congenital lactase deficiency. With the second reason, the baby often has a green stool, severe gas formation and a stomach ache during feedings.
Newborns on breast and artificial feeding add in weight from 500 grams per month. The norm is from 600 grams to about 1.5 kg. Usually kids gain weight unevenly. For example, in the first month they may become heavier by 1.5 kg, and in the second by 500-600 grams. It is important that the weight growth trend be maintained, and the overall increase fits into the normal one. For example, it is believed that by 6 months, children should gain the same weight with which they were born. For example, a child born of a 3.5 kilogram must weigh at least 7 kg.
In addition to the weight of honey. Workers in children's clinics measure the size of the breast, head, and the growth of the child. It should develop harmoniously. Physical and mental skills must be age appropriate. It often happens that way, especially in children closer to the age of one year, that weight is a little behind the norm, and the child is active and developed in age. Then doctors tend to consider this a variant of the norm, an individual feature. It is possible that the child simply has a very active metabolism, but he himself is mobile, does not sit still, quickly consumes the calories received with food.
Excessive weight gain of the newborn is a sign of overeating. It often happens in babies who feed on breast milk without any regimen and in the artificialists who are offered too large amounts of the mixture or are preparing it incorrectly (they make it too saturated). See what normal weight gain in newborns by months can be expected - see the table. If your child is gaining weight by leaps and bounds, normalize his diet.
1. If the baby sucks constantly, try to introduce at least small intervals between feedings. Although they say that breast milk does not overeat, in practice it turns out that it is even possible. And okay, the weight of children eating too much, more often atopic dermatitis (diathesis), more often a stomach ache, infantile colic lasts longer.
2. If the baby is gaining weight well on artificial feeding, you need to once again clarify with the pediatrician about the norms of the mixture intake per day. Surely your baby just overeat.
What to do when a bad weight gain and approximate rules
Feed denser! This is the correct answer to the question. If your baby is a little behind in weight, being exclusively breastfed, do not rush to introduce a mixture into his diet. This will reduce the amount of milk. Often such a weight loss occurs in very young children. The weight of the newborn in the first month after birth grows poorly, if he likes to sleep, while nursing almost all the time he sleeps, sucks not efficiently. Due to lazy sucking, mom's milk production decreases. The child's hunger, of course, wakes up, but usually in the late afternoon, when mommy has almost no milk left in her chest. At least one that can be easily obtained without active sucking.
The weight loss in infants of such a plan is explicable and “cured” by frequent breastfeeding and attempts to wake the baby for feeding. To wake up the baby, you can ventilate the room, turn on the TV, bathe, etc. The weight gain in premature babies for this reason is often insufficient. The baby is small and sluggish. However, krupnyachki, born weighing 4 kg or more, often like to sleep and are too lazy to suck.
If mommy wants to keep breastfeeding, you need, not sparing yourself, almost all days to keep the baby at the breast. Immediately after waking up to breastfeed, do not give to suck water from a bottle and pacifier, only the breast. About a week later the situation is resolved. And if all is well, you can make the intervals between feedings a little more, but not more than 3 hours during the day and 6 hours at night.
If the rate of weight gain in infants breastfeeding is not obtained, for example, the mother has completely flat nipples, and the child does not want to suck milk through silicone pads, or frequent stresses, you need to add supplemental formula. It should be given in feeding, when the child is definitely not fed up. Usually in the evening. It would be ideal to buy or rent electronic scales for weighing babies and weigh the baby on them for a couple of days each time before and after feeding. Thus, it will be possible to estimate the volume of milk consumed, and it will become clear how much the mixture should be given to the child and at what time of day. Just keep in mind that such supplements often lead to a decrease in hepatitis B and its complete replacement by artificial feeding.
To prevent rapid termination of hepatitis B and refusal of the child to eat the breast, you should not abandon attempts to increase lactation. Continue to frequently apply the baby to the breast, try various lactic agents, drink more fluids and be less nervous. When the level, how much normally the baby should add while breastfeeding, is reached and even exceeded, it is time to gradually reduce the addition of the mixture. Only gradually. Many women managed to switch from mixed feeding back to breastfeeding. The main desire. If something does not work out - you need to contact a breastfeeding consultant. He is in any more or less large city.
Does the rate of weight gain depend on the sex of the child? Hardly ever. Weight gain in newborn boys is about the same as that of girls, with the same amount of nutrition. A break of literally half a kilogram is possible. But the growth in boys by the year, indeed, is slightly higher than that of the little ladies. Girls gain weight and height faster than boys only closer to puberty.
In addition to nutrition, the build of a child depends on:
- during pregnancy of the mother.
On average, the weight of children in the first three months of life increases by 750 grams (per month). From 3 to 6 months - 700 grams. From 7 to 9 months - 550 grams per month. From 9 to 12 months - for 350 grams.
The table of the norm of weight gain for newborns from 0 to 1 year by month:
The starting point of the weight of the newborn
Adaptation of the baby to life in a new environment for him - the adaptation period, during which he loses weight. At discharge from the hospital (3-4 days after birth), the crumb will weigh 5-8% less due to fluid loss and other factors, which will be discussed later. Therefore, for the initial point of reference weight take exactly the body weight of the newborn at discharge from the hospital.
How much does a baby weigh at birth
Weighing the baby is carried out immediately after birth. How much should a baby weigh that has no deviations in intrauterine development? Indicators approved by the Health Organization, ranging from 2700 grams. to 3,700 grams, but in recent years the number of children born with a body weight of more than 4,000 grams has increased, and this is not considered a pathology.
Weight at birth depends on several factors:
- genetic predisposition
- health status of the newborn
- gender (girls weigh less than boys),
- nutrition of women during pregnancy
- the presence of bad habits in the expectant mother (smoking and alcohol provoke prematurity and the lag of the baby in weight).
On a note! If the baby was born with a weight that is at the lower limit of the norm (2700-2750 gr.), But he is healthy, and the mother eats properly and does not drink alcohol during pregnancy, doctors evaluate the condition of the baby as normal.
After birth, over the next 5-7 days of life, the infant's weight indicators decrease by 5-8%, which is the norm. This fact is explained as follows:
- the mother has not improved lactation,
- not organized a clear feeding regime,
- meconium is excreted from the body (original feces, filling the baby’s intestines),
- drying of the umbilical cord residue.
During childbirth, the child is under severe stress, and adaptation to new conditions occurs during the next 7-10 days of life, in this period the weight must recover to the original. The fact that the baby weighs less on discharge than at birth is not considered a pathology, but rather the norm.
Features weight gain of newborns
How much should the baby have to add in the first month of breastfeeding? Normally, the weekly indicator of weight gain is 90-150 grams, then this figure grows, and from the second month of life the baby recovers by 140-200 grams. in Week. Small deviations are not considered pathology if the baby grows and develops correctly.
What affects the weight gain of the newborn
The rate of weight gain in an infant during breastfeeding varies depending on several factors:
- gender of the baby - boys are prone to accelerated weight gain,
- heredity - the baby develops according to the build of one of the parents,
- feeding a nursing mother - if he does not follow a diet or takes medication, the taste of milk worsens and the child eats less;
- type of feeding - artificial animals are more often fuller than babies due to the content of sugar, fat and palm oil in mixtures,
- feeding mode - babies who are applied to the breast on demand, gain weight more actively than children feeding by the clock,
- the mobility of the child - active kids spend more energy, they have less weight gain,
- appetite - children who do not want to actively suck their breasts and fall asleep while applying, receive less portions of food, which explains their lack of weight,
- age - during the first 6 months, the baby is actively recovering, then the rates decrease.
Need to know! How much milk a newborn should eat depends on the age and individual needs. It is better to pay attention to the quality of nutrition than to its volume - fat breast milk contributes to weight gain, and liquid will not help the baby to recover, even if it is in excess of the mother.
Weight gain - strict norm or individual indicator
The ideal food for a newborn baby is breast milk, which contains the maximum nutrients that your baby needs to grow and gain weight. To determine the rate of weight gain in a child who is breastfed, by month, pediatricians use a table that lists the values from the upper to the lower limits. The data indicated in the table were obtained in the course of long-term studies and monitoring of the health status of newborns.
According to these data, deviations in the mass of the infant, due to its individual characteristics, are allowed. For example, baby, gaining 500 gr every month. weight is also considered healthy, like a child, adding 300 grams in one month, and 800 grams in another. In such situations, doctors evaluate whether body weight is normal, based on data from the past few months.
How to calculate how much baby weighs
To calculate the approximate body weight of the child and determine whether he is normally gaining weight during the first 6 months of life, a special formula is used: the weight, which was recorded at discharge from the maternity hospital, is plus the number of the baby’s age in months multiplied by 800. For example, newborn with a weight of 3200 gr. during discharge, must weigh in 5 months 7200 gr. (3200 + 5 × 800).
For the next six months of life, the baby will normally add less weight, so for children from 6 months to a year they use another formula that helps to calculate the approximate body weight: the discharge weight plus the 6 first months of life, then the figure is added to 400 x on baby age (-6 months). At first glance, the formula is complex, but it is not. For example, in the first six months the baby scored 800 gr. X 6 = 4800 gr. The finished figure is used to calculate the approximate weight of infants older than 6 months. Baby in 7 months, which weighed 3000 grams. at discharge, must weigh according to the formula 3000 + 4800 + 400x (7-6) = 8200 g.
Average norms and limits of weight gain by month
As already mentioned, weight gain by a breastfed infant is not a strict indicator. If a newborn develops correctly, healthy, gets breast milk on demand, but still a little undernourished, this is not considered a pathology. The rate of weight gain in newborns who are breastfed for months is described in the table, which shows the upper and lower thresholds for fluctuations in the body weight of the child.
Important! Average rates of weight gain are taken as approximate, but when assessing the health status, development, living conditions and feeding of the baby, the doctor may find that even a lack of body weight is not a deviation.
The table of the rate of weight gain by month, approved by WHO
To determine the weight gain of a newborn who is breastfed by month, pediatricians use a table developed by the World Health Organization.
In case the baby does not gain the prescribed 600-700 grams. per month (20-25 grams per day), the doctor studies the feeding regimen, finds out whether the mother has enough milk, and if necessary sends the baby for examination to narrow specialists. Why the crumb can lag behind in the weight gain from peers - will be discussed further.
Infants from 0 to 6 months
The calculation of the weight of infants up to six months begins with the measurement of body weight after discharge from the hospital. In the first 2-3 days after birth, babies lose from 5 to 8% of their weight; this is not considered a deviation or pathology. How much should the baby add in 1 month while breastfeeding? The minimum figure is 115-125 grams. during the week, per month it is 460-500 gr.
The upper level of weight gain in infants varies greatly, especially in the first 6 months of life, many babies gain 1–1.5 kg per month, while the lower one has clear limitations. If during breastfeeding the baby doesn’t recover by more than 460 grams, the doctors suspect insufficient amount of milk in the mother or health problems of the child.
Kids from 6 months to a year
According to the norms of weight gain in children under one year of breastfeeding, 100-300 grams is considered a normal indicator after reaching 6 months of age. monthly. The kid begins to sit, crawl, actively knows the world and spends more calories, so the rules are as follows:
- 6-9 months - the child is gaining 300-500 grams. per month,
- 9-12 months - normal rates of 100-300 grams.
A one-year-old breastfed baby should triple its weight, which is between 8.5 and 12 kg. It’s impossible to overfeed a baby who gets breast milk, because he regulates how much food he needs, unlike the artificial women, which mothers try to feed on a schedule. Therefore, the artificials are more inclined to be overweight and often exceed the normal indicators of weight gain.
What to do if a child gains weight poorly
When the baby is not gaining weight, do not panic. One should be guided by the child’s health, activity and level of development; the indicators are sleep and mood - a baby who sleeps well and is not capricious, may weigh slightly less, but not be sick and weak.
You can not feed the baby through force - the baby himself knows how much food he needs, and extra latching to the chest only strains the situation. Artificialists are prone to overweight, so the overfeeding with milk mixtures is manifested by problems with the digestive system. Feeding should be organized properly - in a relaxed atmosphere, in the absence of stimuli. Mother should eat right and fully relax.
Artificialists eat poorly when they don’t like the taste of the mixture, so the choice of food should be approached responsibly. You can take another brand with a lower content of sugar and palm oils and monitor the reaction of the crumbs.
Tip! If during breastfeeding a child gains little weight, and tests for diseases with a hidden course have shown a negative result, then an experienced pediatrician needs consultation. The doctor will help to adjust the feeding regimen, teach you the correct technique and support morally.
The reasons for the poor growth of the baby
The reasons why the baby does not add much weight when breastfed are varied. Если кроха недобирает массы тела, рассматривают ряд факторов:
- недостаточное количество молока у матери – малыш активно сосет грудь, но резко бросает ее, тянет сосок, капризничает и начинает кормиться снова (так можно распознать, что кроха не наедается),
- low fat milk - the cause is the wrong diet of the mother, lack of vitamins and high-calorie foods,
- dysbacteriosis - food cannot be fully digested even with a sufficient amount of milk due to violations in the composition of the intestinal microflora,
- regurgitation after feeding - so that the baby doesn’t lose the eaten food after each application, you can’t put it right in the crib, you need to hold it with a post to release air from the stomach,
- strict regime - some mothers do not take into account the psychological needs of the baby and finish feeding exactly after 15 minutes, although the baby is slow, and he needs at least half an hour to saturate (as a result, the child remains hungry and does not gain weight),
- diseases and neurological disorders - during infectious diseases (ARVI, flu), teething babies lose weight due to lack of appetite. With neurological problems, the doctor notices the underdevelopment of the facial muscles and oral apparatus, because of which it is difficult for the baby to suck the breasts, he lacks weight and often cries.
If you have such problems, you should contact the doctors to eliminate the negative factors and establish the process of feeding the crumbs. Often, mastering the correct technique and taking into account psychological needs quickly produce results - the child is actively recovering, sleeping well and developing.
What to do if brute force
Going through the weight of a baby up to a year is no less dangerous than a shortfall, but one should not immediately take action if the child grows fat and recovers excessively. It is possible that in 2-3 months the crumb will gain more weight, and in the following months it will not recover at all. The framework established by WHO and the doctors are considered conditional, and if the weight falls under the upper limit of the norm, everything is fine.
When gaining excess weight for several months in a row, the crumb should be shown to the endocrinologist. Often, the examination does not reveal pathologies, and the obesity of the baby is justified by hereditary predisposition. It is necessary to abandon the night feedings, lure in 5-6 months to start vegetables, and not cereal with milk. Good effect gives a general massage - helps to lose weight and strengthen the body. If the child is gaining weight a lot in breastfeeding, the mother should follow a diet with a restriction of sweet, flour and carbohydrate foods.
Excessive weight in an infant, as well as insufficient body weight, are a cause for concern for young parents. We need to weigh the baby every month in order to take action on time if the indicators do not fall within the normal range. But we must remember that the body of each crumb is individual, and even a slight lag in weight gain is not always considered pathological. Especially if during the examination the doctor did not find any signs of disease, and the baby itself is active, well developed, sleeping and eating.