Symptoms of cystitis in women, treatment, causes, which doctor to contact
What caused the special attention to the representatives of the beautiful half of humanity in the analysis of this delicate problem? The answer is very simple - women are more susceptible to the disease than men, and almost every second or third woman has suffered from acute cystitis, or continues to suffer from it in a chronic form.
There are two reasons for this:
- In women and girls, the urinary and genital tracts are disconnected, but the outlet of the urethra is located in the genital area. Proximity to the mucous membrane dramatically increases the chances of infection of the lower urinary tract in inflammatory gynecological diseases,
- The second cause of female cystitis is also anatomical. In men, the urethra is long, and this is what causes some problems when installing a catheter. And in women, the urethra is very short, and simply does not have time to stand in the way of the spread of infection.
Cystitis in itself, along with pyelonephritis, is one of the most common urological diseases in the world. What is this process, how is it recognized and treated?
Quick transition on the page
What it is?
Cystitis is an inflammatory infectious process (all inflammatory diagnoses end in “it”), which occurs in the wall (in the mucosa) of the bladder. Sometimes, in everyday life, so called any non-specific urinary tract infection, which did not rise to the kidneys, and manifests itself as a complex of dysuric disorders (urinary disturbance) and changes in urine sediment.
Cystitis rightfully, in men and women, can be called a polyetiological disease that develops for very many reasons:
- The disease can be primary and secondary - in the event that it has complicated the course of any disease. Thus, the most often secondary process occurs against the background of blockage of the urethra with a stone or tumor, with strictures (that is, narrowing of the urethra), and also occurring against the background of gynecological diseases.
- It can be both acute and chronic cystitis. Almost always, with a chronic process, there are signs of prolonged gynecological inflammation, both high (salpingitis, salpingo-oophoritis), and in the immediate vicinity of the urethra, for example, with colpitis.
- Damage to the bladder can be infectious and non-infectious (toxic, allergic, due to the use of medication or radiation sickness).
It is also possible the development of the disease in the following situations:
- At injury of the mucous membrane of the bladder (in a traffic accident, with urolithiasis).
- In chronic congestive venous insufficiency in the pelvic area.
- With the usual hypothermia ("cystitis short skirt", when sitting on cold objects).
- With hormonal abnormalities, in the period of menopause and menopause.
- With spinal strokes, spinal cord pathology, cone syndrome, with multiple sclerosis. In these cases, urodynamics are disturbed due to the development of a neurogenic bladder, since the passage of urine is disturbed.
However, the most common cause of cystitis is a normal, bacterial process, which is caused by banal E. coli, and acute inflammation is more common in women, because their urethra is not only short, but also wider than in men, education.
The easiest way is a violation of hygiene, in which there is contamination of the genital organs with feces from the anus.
For this, completely imperceptible quantities are sufficient, and usually this happens when an incorrect leaching occurs, which does not occur from front to back (this is correct), but also from back to front (cannot)!
It is the urethra that is most often the entrance gate of the infection. It loses its natural sterility and is first populated by conditionally pathogenic flora, and then pathogenic microorganisms, which then penetrate higher, spreading to the mucous membrane.
For some of them, the urine in the bladder is a valuable source of nitrogen and mineral salts, and the organic matter microorganisms are obtained from the mucous membrane.
Nevertheless, the mucous membrane of the bladder by nature has a pronounced resistance to microbial infection. Therefore, in order for it to occur, it is necessary that the blood flow in the bladder wall is broken, there is a general decrease in immunity or violation of urine outflow. It is in this case that the infection develops.
The first signs of cystitis in women, symptoms and pain
Lower abdominal discomfort is the first sign of cystitis in girls and women. It occurs (in a typical situation) on the same day after hypothermia, towards evening, or the next morning. Further, the symptoms of acute inflammation are:
- frequent and painful urination,
- lower abdominal pain
- pyuria (appearance of pus in the urine),
- terminal hematuria (the appearance of blood in the last portion of urine, which is the "flush" from the walls of the bladder).
Many women ask if acute pains are possible? - Yes, they are, but they will be associated with urination. After urinating, the pain remains, but a little weaker, and the attempt to press in the suprapubic area causes a sharp increase in pain.
It is known that the more pronounced the inflammation, the more often urge to urinate, and the stronger the pain. Most often, the pain in cystitis in women is noted during urination, which becomes frequent - every 20-30 minutes.
A common symptom is the discharge of a few drops of blood at the very end of urination. Blood is formed from a loose and bleeding inflamed mucosa, with muscle contraction.
These pains can drive patients to exhaustion, since they do not stop day or night. Constant pain causes a spasm of the bladder muscles. As a result, urine pressure increases, and frequent imperative urges to immediately urinate develop.
- If you collect urine in the acute process - it will be muddy. It contains a lot of epithelium, leukocytes, germs and red blood cells.
General well-being, as a rule, does not suffer, because there is very little absorption from the bladder into the blood - because it contains urine, which must be removed very soon from the body. As a rule, the temperature rises only in young children, and in the event that this happens in an adult, this indicates involvement in the inflammatory process of the kidneys, and the development of acute pyelonephritis.
With the usual course of the disease after 8-10 days, all inflammatory manifestations subside, and the patient's condition improves. But in the event that this process "smolders" for more than 2-3 weeks, then it can be a question of a chronic process.
Symptoms of chronic cystitis, features
The chronic form in women develops much more often than in men. One of the reasons is the development of urethrovaginal reflux. The fact is that after acute cystitis, scarring of the posterior wall of the urethra is possible, leading to disruption of the dynamics of urine and a slight injection into the genital tract.
- This contributes to the emergence of a closed "glow center", favorable for the formation of chronic inflammation.
Therefore, most often, chronic cystitis in women does not develop as an outcome of an acute (which seems to be the most logical), but more often it is a complication of other diseases of the urinary tract, kidneys, and gynecological infection.
In the event that a woman has symptoms of chronic cystitis, you need to look for a primary focus of infection, and also start looking for a specific inflammation. Sources of specific chronic processes include:
- schistosomiasis (including imported from the countries of Southeast Asia).
In the case of chronic cystitis, all the symptoms and signs are the same, they are only less pronounced, and not so painful for the patient. Often the chronic form is exacerbated in spring and autumn, and is also associated with hypothermia.
About diagnostics and analyzes
In typical cases, the diagnosis is not difficult. The above clinical signs and urinalysis confirm the inflammatory process, and bacteriological urine culture with the determination of the sensitivity of microbes to antibiotics gives a "key" to treatment.
It is important to note that in acute cystitis, all invasive procedures, such as cystoscopy, are strictly contraindicated, but in chronic inflammation, it is necessary because in some cases it can be used to establish the cause of the disease.
In the event that nausea or vomiting occurs with similar symptoms, symptoms of peritoneal involvement, inflammatory changes in the blood, fever, tachycardia appear, then the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in the pelvic position of the process should be excluded.
Treatment of cystitis in women at home, drugs
For some reason, the most difficult question for cystitis is - which doctor should a woman go to? We answer:
- Urologist. You can (and should) contact your urologist. A urologist is not at all an exclusively male doctor, because everyone has organs of excretion. This will be the most correct decision.
- Therapist. In the event that a urologist, as a “narrow” specialist, cannot be reached without a therapist, and there are no funds for private centers - use the experience and knowledge of the therapist. He is quite able to determine (in uncomplicated cases) the diagnosis, prescribe a study and treatment, stop the acute phase or remove the exacerbation during the chronic process,
- Gynecologist. Naturally, no decent gynecologist refuses to consult the patient. And in the event that the symptoms of cystitis have arisen in a pregnant woman, then the gynecologist should be the first and obligatory for visiting a doctor.
How and where to treat cystitis? Practical treatment of acute cystitis in women is always carried out at home, as the general condition allows. Hospitalization is carried out in cases of marked inflammation, general deterioration of the condition, and, for example, symptoms of an acute abdomen.
The principles of treatment are as follows:
- A half-bed mode is desirable,
- All spicy, spicy, stimulating and irritating dishes, alcohol and coffee are excluded from the diet. Should stop smoking,
- It is necessary to increase diuresis in order to "expel" the infection from the bladder. It is recommended to drink plenty of fluids (juices, fruit drinks, jelly, mineral water),
- For home treatment, women can use mild diuretic drugs, including herbal medicines: knotweed, bearberry, lingonberry leaf, bear ears, or Canephron,
- Cystitis is a very rare case when, during inflammation “inside the abdomen,” there are heating pads on the pubic area and warm baths. The fact is that heat relaxes the muscle, which reduces the degree of dysuric disorders and alleviates the condition.
Mandatory should be the rapid appointment of antimicrobial agents in the acute form of the disease. In that case, if there will be a determination of sensitivity to antibiotics, you can only lose time in vain. It is necessary to begin treatment in an empirical way.
The best effect in acute cystitis is nitrofurans and modern combined preparations, as well as fluoroquinolones:
- McMirior (nifuratel),
Of course, other antibacterial drugs can be used, for example, Biseptol or Furazolidone, but these are older drugs, and their effectiveness is somewhat lower.
Antibiotics for acute cystitis give a quick effect, sometimes in the morning, a woman relieves all the symptoms. To facilitate the course of the disease, in addition to etiotropic drugs, myotropic antispasmodics (“No-shpa”) can be used at home.
In case dysuric phenomena are strongly pronounced, then light sedatives, tranquilizers can be used. If the diagnosis is established, then pain relievers can be used, for example, Ketanov.
The most important thing is not to be afraid to drink more fluid. Some young patients are afraid because they understand that if they drink a lot, their torment will be magnified many times over. In fact, with the joint appointment of heavy drinking and antibacterial therapy, the symptoms very quickly begin to lose their acuteness, and then disappear altogether.
In chronic cystitis, the treatment is extended: instillations of various drugs into the bladder are carried out, electrophoresis is prescribed. In the case of chronic complications such as cicatricial contractions of the urethra, sclerosis of the bladder neck, reflux, surgery is performed.
Do not underestimate the cunning of the disease. The chronic process can rise higher, initiating inflammation in the kidneys. If infected urine enters the ureters, then their purulent inflammation is possible, as well as signs of pyelonephritis.
With cystitis, more severe lesions may begin, for example, apostematic nephritis and even perirephritis, that is, inflammation of the pararenal cellulose.
There are very severe forms that are localized in the bladder itself, for example, necrotic and gangrenous cystitis. In addition, if a woman has a violation of urine outflow (for example, due to multiple sclerosis), and an acute form of the disease will develop against this background - the prognosis may be unfavorable if the infection spreads upwards.
But in uncomplicated cases, with typical symptoms and timely treatment, acute cystitis in women passes quickly - the main task in this case is to prevent the transition of an acute process to a chronic one.
With cystitis - which doctor to contact?
Cystitis is quite painful, with frequent urination, burning and sharp pain after emptying, with a constant feeling of bladder overcrowding, low body temperature, sometimes even with admixture of blood and mucus in the urine. If a woman has the listed symptoms, which doctor should you go to?
For women with cystitis, in order to clarify the diagnosis, it is necessary first of all to consult a urologist, since this doctor is engaged in the diagnosis and treatment of cystitis, for examination it is necessary to pass a urine test - general analysis, for bacterial inoculation according to Nechyporenko, an ultrasound of the bladder and cytoscopic examination.
In addition, you should definitely visit the gynecologist, as often cystitis can be caused not only by banal bacteria, but also be combined with sexually transmitted infections, therefore, a gynecologist's examination and smear examination for the study of the vaginal microflora are also necessary. In women with cystitis, treatment includes antibiotics and uroseptics, sometimes instillations of the bladder and physiotherapy can be prescribed by a doctor.
Causes of cystitis in women
The most common cause of cystitis in women is infectious agents, since the close location of the vagina, anus, and a short and fairly wide urethra have the potential to penetrate various pathogenic microorganisms into the bladder along the ascending pathways. However, there are other ways for bacteria to enter the urinary system:
- ascending path - urethral, that is, from the urethra
- descending path - on the contrary, from the upper urinary tract
- lymphogenous - from other organs of the small pelvis
- hematogenous - a rare way of infection from distant organs.
When a woman develops symptoms of cystitis, do not self-medicate, because there are a large number of causes of cystitis, pathogens, and for proper successful treatment, you should first determine them, clarify their sensitivity to antimicrobials, and only then carry out comprehensive treatment as prescribed by a doctor.
Cystitis in women is very rarely an isolated process when hygiene, constipation, the common cold, the abuse of spicy foods or alcohol, the use of thongs, changing partners, the rare emptying of the bladder, etc., cause reproduction of banal pathogenic bacteria. In 80% of these are E. coli, in 15% of staphylococcus, 5% of other bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella, Proteus.
- Most often, cystitis occurs on the background of inflammatory processes in the vagina or in diseases of the female genital organs, such as bacterial vaginosis, thrush, sexually transmitted diseases (gonorrhea, mycoplasmosis, chlamydia, ureaplasmosis), sometimes cystitis is accompanied by female genital tuberculosis. Many latent infections and tuberculosis for a long time are asymptomatic, imperceptible, the woman only occasionally experiences some discomfort, low-grade fever, weakness, does not visit the doctor, and does not go to diagnostic centers to investigate the cause of light ailments.
- Pyelonephritis, stones in the bladder, and urinary congestion with diverticulums can be attributed to additional provocative factors in the development of cystitis.
- Very often, cystitis occurs in pregnant women, this is due to a change in the microflora of both the vagina and the urological tract, under the influence of endocrine and hemodynamic rearrangement in the body of a pregnant woman.
- If a woman has diabetes mellitus, frequent manifestations of allergic reactions, she is exposed to constant toxic effects or treats cancer with radiation therapy - these are also risk factors for the development of cystitis.
- Sometimes after carrying out surgical procedures, operations, endoscopic examinations, mucous membrane injury occurs, which contributes to the development of cystitis in women.
- Symptoms of cystitis also occur during menopause, as during menopause, atrophic changes in the body and lack of estrogen also affect the urogenital tract.
In addition to acute cystitis, many women suffer from a chronic inflammatory process on the background of either the sluggish infections listed above, or chronic cystitis in women is associated with the prolapse of the uterus, vagina.
Symptoms of cystitis in women
After provocative factors, such as injury, a cold, after unprotected sexual intercourse, an infectious disease, etc., acute cystitis in women can occur, which always begins very abruptly, suddenly:
- Dysuria - frequent urination, cutting in the bladder, burning and pain in the urethra, the constant desire to empty the bladder.
- Before urinating, a woman usually has to make an effort to push. The frequency of urging is so high that a woman has to go to the toilet every 15 minutes, sometimes involuntary urinary incontinence occurs.
- Nocturia - the predominance of nocturnal desire to empty the bladder.
- Pain usually accompanies the beginning and end of the process of urination. Outside the process of emptying the pain is localized only in the pubic part and perineum. The intensity of pain may be different, from a slight discomfort to unbearable, strong cutting.
- Almost always with cystitis in women, urine is cloudy, purulent.
- In acute cystitis, the temperature may rise to 38 ° C, respectively, there is a weakness, a deterioration in general well-being.
- Very often, after the first acute process, recurrences of the disease occur, if a month after treatment acute cystitis develops again, therefore, it indicates that the infection persists.
- In chronic cystitis in a woman, the symptoms and treatment of the disease are identical, it is only possible that the pain and frequency of urge to urinate are not so pronounced. During the exacerbation of a chronic process, a clinical picture of acute cystitis is possible, and during remission, neither laboratory nor symptomatic data indicate an inflammatory process.
Causes of pathology
The process of infection is caused by the entry of pathogens. The pathogen strains are a whole lot. These can be bacteria, viral and fungal infections. Cause inflammation of staphylococcus, streptococcus, chlamydia, mycoplasma. In 70-80%, E. coli becomes the source of the disease.
Conditionally pathogenic representatives of microflora can also be the cause of the disease. They are present in the human body and under normal conditions do not cause any damage, but in the presence of provoking factors they begin to actively show signs of vital activity, multiply and thereby cause harm to health.
Statistical data on patients being treated in the urological departments of clinical hospitals, allows us to conclude that in 70-80% of cases microbial and bacterial associations were the cause of the development of pathology, and not monoinfection.
The development of cystitis in women is due to the anatomical features of the structure of the urethra. It is short and wide, therefore, contributes to the rapid penetration of microorganisms into the cavity of the bladder.
Many factors that determine the development of the disease:
- Sexual intercourse Prolonged friction of the opening of the urethra causes irritation, microcracks, which contributes to the penetration of bacteria. Infection can be transmitted from a partner. Indiscriminate intimate life increases the risk of infection, the likelihood of developing sexually transmitted infections is high (post-coital cystitis). In the people, this type of ailment is called “honeymoon syndrome”. He arakteren bridal, with the loss of virginity or with prolonged abstinence.
- Taking medication can cause an inflammatory process in the body as one type of adverse reaction. For example, the means to combat malignant tumor neoplasms (cytostatics), the metabolism of which produces a substance (acrolein), irritating the mucous membrane of the bladder (drug cystitis).
- Allergy. Mucous may show a reaction to the use of personal care products, talcum, toilet paper, vaginal deodorants. It is necessary to identify the allergen and stop its use.
- Hormonal disorder. The complex structure of the hormonal system of a woman, as well as certain periods of her life, cause an imbalance in this area. The greatest risk occurs in menopausal age, in the period of childbearing and lactation.
- Violation of personal intimate hygiene.
- Wearing tight linen from non-natural fabrics. Constant friction and the creation of the greenhouse effect, due to the airtightness of the material, increases the likelihood of developing cystitis.
- Reduced immunity due to avitaminosis or unbalanced diet.
- Constant hypothermia also reduces the local immunity of the female body.
- Various injuries of the pelvis and violation of the integrity of the skin and mucous membranes of the organs of the urethra.
- Diseases of the pelvic organs, kidney disease, which tend to the downward spread of the inflammatory process, and disorders of the digestive system. Against the background of intestinal pathology and constipation, conditionally pathogenic microflora can be activated.
- The presence of inflammatory processes or tumors in the body.
- Urinary retention inside the bladder.
- Operations on the cervix and urinary organs.
Inflammation of the bladder can also be provoked by worms that penetrate with chronic tuberculosis or kidney pyelonephritis. Such diseases as dysbacteriosis, furunculosis, tonsillitis, pulpitis also act as a cause of cystitis. The inflammatory process inside the bladder can only be an intermediate and become a factor in the development of other pathologies: cervicitis, urethritis, thrush, bacterial vaginosis. Possible violation of the menstrual cycle during and after illness.
There are two forms of cystitis: acute and chronic. For the first case, pronounced symptomatology is characteristic, the second state proceeds with erased manifestations. If the pathology develops for the first time, then an acute form is diagnosed, with repeated infection or an incompletely treated ailment, they speak of a chronic form.
Symptoms of cystitis in women:
- Frequent and strong urge to urinate, while the volume of fluid emitted is negligible.
- Itching and burning during urination.
- Change in color, odor of urine, observation of increased turbidity or sediment (leukocyturia).
- Hematuria - the presence of blood in the urine. In this case, the urine may have a pale pink hue, there is the release of a drop of blood directly after the emptying process (hemorrhagic cystitis).
- Pain in the lower abdomen and lower back. They may not be very pronounced or even manifest in cystitis in childhood or in the elderly.
- The presence of elevated temperature. In the acute form of its indicators are large enough and can cause chills and fever. In chronic pathology, they have subfebrile values.
- Fatigue, headache.
- Nausea and vomiting.
In any case, the appearance of any disturbances in the process of urination should prompt a person to see a doctor. Actions for cystitis to relieve their condition, which the patient can take independently at home:
- Limit locomotor activity, observe bed rest.
- Take plenty of drink.
- To exclude from your diet too salty, spicy, spicy dishes, canned food, meat broths, alcohol.
- You can apply various decoctions of herbs that have a diuretic effect.
ATTENTION! In no case should not try to cope with the disease on their own. It is unacceptable!
Treatment of cystitis in women with folk methods will help reduce the symptoms, but it is not capable of affecting the causative agent of inflammation. The process does not leave the body, but only for a while it calms down with a possible re-aggravation in a more severe form. This occurs when the infection spreads to the muscular layer of the bladder (interstitial cystitis), the organ shrinks, and its functions are impaired. Without proper treatment, microorganisms move to the kidneys and lead to the development of the most severe disease - pyelonephritis.
The presence of characteristic symptoms does not allow to speak about cystitis. At an early stage, a person may simply overlook violations. It is necessary to conduct additional laboratory studies to make an accurate diagnosis. Pathology recognition consists of a number of activities:
- Anamnesis study: clinical picture of the disease, individual manifestations, duration of unpleasant sensations.
- Examination of the urologist. Apply palpation of the suprapubic area. In this case, in the case of inflammation, there is a sharp painful symptom.
- Urinalysis. An increase in the number of leukocytes and protein, mucus, red blood cells may indicate an inflammatory process.
- Bacteriological urine culture. The procedure allows to identify the pathogen, to determine its sensitivity to antibiotics.
- Consultation of a gynecologist and gynecological tests: bacteriological and microscopic analysis, PCR smear examination.
- Ultrasound of the genitourinary system. The survey helps determine the size, shape, contours of the organs and the presence of echo-negative suspensions.
- Cystoscopy and cystography. They are necessary to determine the morphological type of the bladder, the presence of tumors, foreign bodies.
- Endoscopy and biopsy. Studies are conducted strictly according to indications.
Conducting a qualitative diagnosis is the key to a quick and successful deliverance from the disease. To treat cystitis in women, hospitalization is not required. Only in severe forms of the acute type must be observed in the hospital. The main approach in the treatment of the disease - drug therapy.
Use pills, injections, suppositories. Injections and suppository can reduce the effect on the kidneys and liver. In urological practice, a whole list of drugs for the treatment of inflammation is used.
- With a long wait for diagnostic results, it is possible to assign broad-spectrum antibiotics: “Monural”, “Nitroxoline”.
- Fluoroquinolone drugs are excellent for dealing with inflammation: Norfloxacin, Ofloxacin, Cifran, Levofloxacin.
- Anesthetic medicines are used: Diclofenac, Metamizol, Ketorolac, No-shpa. When spasms of the muscles of the bladder use inexpensive drugs - Papaverin, Drotaverin.
- Probiotics are prescribed to maintain intestinal microflora in parallel with antibiotics.
- If necessary, used immunomodulatory agents and vitamin complexes.
The duration of treatment is 5-7 days, in rare cases - two weeks. Specific drugs and their combinations, course and dosage are individual for each patient.
For acute cystitis, one full course is enough. With chronic - therapy is delayed, it is difficult to cure completely and forever. Modern means with regular use can even relieve recurrences of a long-growing disease. Under exceptional circumstances, surgical intervention is carried out.
During the treatment it is necessary to follow a certain diet. It is recommended to limit products with a pronounced irritant effect on the mucous membrane of the bladder: spicy, salty, smoked, spicy foods. Preference is given to easily digestible, neutral in taste food: various soups, porridges. The patient should provide plenty of drink: compotes, decoctions and fitozbory, fruit drinks and juices from all fruits and berries that do not have high acidity. Alkaline solutions, mineral waters without gas neutralize the acidic environment of urine, helping to reduce itching and burning.
Independent use of traditional medicine, the choice of medicinal herbs and herbal teas is unacceptable. Even additional methods are prescribed by the attending physician.
The use of physiotherapy methods is recommended: ultrasound, laser therapy, magnetophoresis, electrophoresis, induction and hyperthermia, HF therapy. In the process of treatment, it will be necessary to avoid hypothermia and abandon sexual intercourse.
Other methods of therapy
Folk remedies are used to alleviate the condition. Simplest recipes will help to quickly reduce inflammation and pain.
A solution of baking soda is quite convenient in preparation and has a high performance, confirmed by more than one generation. Due to the alkaline environment and antibacterial properties, already the first use of the drink gives the effect: it helps to relieve pain, reduces the frequency of desires. Half an hour after that, take an analgesic pill together with orange juice (2 cups) and put a warm water bottle on the abdomen. It is necessary to warm up to 2 hours, periodically replacing water. It is recommended to supplement the treatment with the use of cranberry juice, chamomile tea, birch leaf tincture.
Effective tool in the fight against the disease is millet. From it is prepared suspension, steamed tincture, used in the traditional form: add to soup, boil porridge.
Traditional medicine offers for the treatment of cystitis to use the healing properties of plants in the form of tinctures, decoctions, tea. Apply to this end a decoction of flax seed, birch buds, juniper, tincture of bearberry or plantain, licorice root.
There are finished drugs of natural origin. Currently, much attention is paid to the treatment and prevention of cystitis with medicines based on cranberry extract.
There are combined funds created on the basis of medicinal fees, for example, Uroprofit. The combined properties of the components have a therapeutic effect, give a preventive effect, preventing the occurrence of relapses in the future.
Reviews of patients using traditional methods speak about their effectiveness, ease of preparation, low cost.
Cystitis during pregnancy and lactation
The state of pregnancy is one of the provoking factors for the development of cystitis. The presence of pathology in the period of childbearing is associated with the following changes in the body:
- The level of general immunity decreases: the development of embryonic cells requires a lot of nutrients and microelements.
- Disruption of the hormonal background: the vaginal microflora changes and becomes more susceptible to infection.
- Increasing the size of the uterus, especially in the last stages. Impaired blood supply to the bladder and urinary tract, which leads to a decrease in local immunity.
- Decreased bladder tone due to increased levels of progesterone. Congestion of urine occurs, the multiplication of infectious agents is intense.
Treatment of cystitis during pregnancy should be carried out under the strict supervision of medical personnel. In chronic form, it is desirable to undergo a study before conception. If nevertheless it was not possible to avoid pathology during childbirth, one should immediately contact a gynecologist for prescribing approved drugs.
The most dangerous disease in the early stages: many drugs are prohibited, all organs and systems of the fetus are laid. In the second trimester, the risk of infection increases, but medication treatment is quite effective and does not last long.
Prescribing medication should be based on the ratio of the need for treatment and the risk to the pregnant woman and the fetus.
Conditionally approved antibiotics at this time: "Monural", "Amoksiklav", "Zinnat." As an adjunct, such drugs as Canephron, other herbal products, cranberry fruit drinks, and a certain diet can be prescribed. It is also shown the introduction of funds into the bladder using a catheter. Despite the effectiveness of the procedure, it has some contraindications.
With lactation apply the same means as during pregnancy. This takes into account the rate of absorption into breast milk, the effect on the baby. In some cases, you have to abandon breastfeeding, or suspend it at the time of treatment.
In pregnancy, an effective method of therapeutic effects - the use of candles. The advantage of this therapy is the rate of absorption into the blood, while there is no effect of the drug on the digestive system, there is no metabolism through the liver. Recommended candles such as "Hexicon", "Betadine", "Polygynax". But they can cause irritation of the mucous membrane, itching and burning in the vagina or anus. These side effects are rare, very individual.
Features of the disease during menopause
Возрастные изменения в организме женщины являются дополнительными факторами, повышающими риск развития патологии:
- изменение гормонального фона,
- the presence of inflammation in the body,
- decrease in the elasticity of the urinary and reproductive tissues,
- various pathologies of the circulatory system,
- decrease in metabolic rate,
- tumor in the pelvic area.
The symptoms of cystitis also appear in older women in a slightly different way:
- A characteristic violation of urination: frequent urge and emptying, urinary incontinence.
- The presence of low, low-grade fever.
- Hematuria is characteristic, especially in the presence of a tumor.
- Disruption of well-being, appetite may not be observed.
- Lubricated pain syndrome due to reduced sensitivity.
Age-related changes make a woman's body more susceptible to the development of infection, it is necessary to take preventive measures to avoid the progression of pathology.
Development of inflammation in children
Girls are sick more often than boys. The general causes of the development of the ailment between the ages of 4 and 12 are as follows:
- Pathology of the genital organs.
- Disturbance in the structure of the urinary system.
- Non-compliance with the rules of genital hygiene.
- Reduced immunity: various avitaminosis, mental disorders, poor-quality diet.
- The use of drugs that cause the development of inflammation.
- Genetic predisposition.
Symptomatology is also manifested as in adults: a violation of urination, discoloration and smell of urine, the presence of sediment in it.
The development of the disease in childhood is associated with a lack of washing skills and knowledge of the correct wiping after an act of defecation.
The teenager is susceptible to infection at the beginning of an active sex life. In girls, the ovaries still insufficiently release hormones to maintain the protective functions of the vaginal mucosa. Vaginitis and vulvitis are common causes of cystitis.
Treatment is chosen more carefully, sometimes it is even possible to refuse the use of antibiotics. Or, they are assigned a specific group to which the pathogens are sensitive in this case, in order to avoid harmful effects on other organs and systems of the weak body.
When conducting a systematic and high-quality prevention reduces the risk of developing cystitis.
Infection prevention measures:
- Avoid hypothermia: do not sit on a cold surface, should dress for the weather. The momentary tribute to fashion can end sadly.
- Careful adherence to personal cleanliness. Women are recommended daily washing away, the use of special hygiene products, before and after each sexual intercourse it is necessary to make water procedures.
- Proper use of toilet paper after an act of defecation: the movement should be directed from the urethra to the anus, and not in the opposite direction.
- Periodic processing of sanitary ware with disinfectants.
- Full and timely emptying of the bladder.
- Wearing natural underwear, they are synthetic.
- Timely treatment of inflammation of the urogenital system.
- Drink at least 8 glasses a day. As a preventive measure, it is useful to use cranberry juice, it reduces the possibility of bacteria sticking to the walls of the bladder.
- When recurrent cystitis is necessary to replace the bath in the shower.
If you follow these simple recommendations, it is possible to preserve health and protect yourself from the development of this pathology. Cystitis is an insidious disease that can occur in everyone. If you follow all precautions, the probability of its occurrence decreases significantly.