Features of preparation for MRI of the small pelvis in men
Every person is prone to diseases that make their own changes in a healthy body. To see the doctor changes in the patient's body, he needs to conduct additional research methods. At the moment, the most accurate type of research is considered magnetic resonance imaging or abbreviated MRI.
MRI allows visualization of soft tissues, bones, joints and ligaments. The operation of a magnetic tomograph is based on the principle of nuclear magnetic resonance, in which the pulses emitted by hydrogen nuclei in a magnetic field are measured and converted into digital images.
In this study, water and fat signals are recorded, which are 90%. Magnetic resonance imaging technology helps to get high-quality images of healthy and damaged tissues. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered to be an excellent tool for oncologic doctors, as with the help of MRI, the slightest changes in the tissues can be seen.
The following specialists usually refer men for MRI:
The diagnosed area of men includes:
- lymph nodes
- pelvic bones,
What are the advantages of a study?
Advantages of MRI:
- No radiation effect on the patient. The operation of a magnetic resonance imager is based on nuclear magnetic resonance, which does not affect the patient.
- Non-invasive research. Magnetic tomography does not require surgical intervention.
- Ability to conduct an outpatient examination.
- High precision research. MRI allows you to see the slightest changes in the organs, for example, to determine the stage of cancer of the testicle, bladder, rectum, prostate gland.
- The results of an MRI scan can be stored on a computer or printed on a film.
- Up to 100 shots can be taken in one procedure.
- Allows you to assess the structure and condition of the pelvic organs.
- The ability to see organs in different planes that are not available with other research methods.
How to get rid of prostatitis without the help of doctors, at home?
- to stop the pain
- normalize urination
- to have sexual desire and the ability to have sexual intercourse
What are the symptoms of tomography of the pelvic organs for men?
MRI is prescribed for the following diseases:
- Lower abdominal pain,
- Urination disorders,
- Acute pain when urinating,
- Swelling of the scrotum,
- Absence of one of the testicle,
- Urinary retention
- Hormonal disorders
- Varicose veins testicles,
- Male infertility
- Pain in the penis and scrotum,
- Inflammation of the penis,
- Scrotum resizing,
- Tumor changes in the penis,
- Pelvic injuries,
- Erectile dysfunction,
- Traces of blood in the urine or feces
- Rapid weight loss for no apparent reason.
Who needs MRI diagnostics?
MRI is necessary for men in the following cases:
- Prophylactic magnetic tomography is recommended for early diagnosis of pelvic diseases, which are successfully treated in the initial stages.
- Men over 45 years old are recommended to undergo an annual tomography scan, as the risk of prostate cancer increases.
- Injuries of the small pelvis in men.
- Circulatory disorders in the pelvic area.
- Men who have undergone x-ray examination. As a result of this study revealed pathological changes.
- Congenital malformations of the urogenital system,
- Suspicion of urinary tract and intestinal involvement,
- Postoperative complications of the pelvis.
- Pelvic adhesions,
- Patients who have a clinical controversy with other types of research,
- Patients with difficulties in the diagnosis of other types of research.
What does an MRI scan show for men?
Normally, the results of MRI images do not show pathological changes in the following organs:
- Organs, blood vessels, bones and joints of normal shape and appearance.
- There are no tumors and abnormal development of organs, tissues and joints,
- There are no inflammatory processes,
- No bleeding, accumulation of fluids in the pelvis,
- Normal blood flow to the pelvic organs.
In the presence of a chronic disease, MRI images visualize any pathological changes:
- Enlarged or reduced body
- Blood vessels are narrowed or dilated.
- Stagnation of the phenomenon
- Abnormal growth of tissue cells,
- Cyst formation
- Accumulation of inflammatory fluid
- Groin and scrotum hernias, How to remove an inguinal hernia in men can be found here.
- Changes in lymph nodes
- Stones and sand in the urinary system.
Pathological changes in men can be when:
- Prostate cancer,
- Bladder cancer,
- Cancer of the kidneys and ureters,
- Testicular cancer
- Colorectal cancer,
- Fractures of the pelvic bones,
- Pelvic hematomas,
- Congenital malformations of the pelvic organs,
- Male infertility.
How should prepare for the study?
Magnetic tomography does not require special training.
But for better visualization of the pelvic organs it is necessary to observe the following recommendations:
- For the day, exclude products that contribute to the formation of gases: cabbage, fruit, black bread, legumes, carbonated drinks.
- Food intake should be limited to 4-6 hours before the study.
- 30 minutes before magnetic tomography, you need to take 2 tablets of No-shpy to ensure muscle relaxation.
- For 2 hours, do not empty the bladder so that it is filled with urine.
- Reception of activated carbon at the rate of 2 tablets per 10 kg of body weight on the eve of the examination.
- It is necessary to provide all medical documentation, such as discharge, the results of other studies, medical card.
- Remove all jewelry, as well as watches.
- If the patient is worried, the doctor may prescribe sedatives.
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When is a study contraindicated?
With relative contraindications, tomography is relatively contraindicated in such cases as:
- Inadequate patient behavior
- Claustrophobic patients
- The need for continuous monitoring of the patient’s condition,
- The presence of watches, cards, jewelry,
- Dentures, in which there is a metal,
- The presence of a medical patch,
- A biopsy of the pelvic neoplasm tissue for the next month.
MRI examination is absolutely contraindicated if the patient has:
- Hemostatic clips on vessels,
- Electronic implants of the middle ear,
- Devices of intraaortic balloon counterpulsation,
- Non-fixed ferromagnetic materials in the patient's body, such as shards or shrapnel,
- Tattoos containing a ferromagnetic dye,
- Endoprosthesis joints containing metal.
How is the MRI procedure performed?
MRI is as follows:
- Before the start of the MRI, an agreement on the service provided can be concluded. Having signed the contract, the patient accepts the risks of MRI, learns about the course of the study and what results he can get after the examination.
- The MRI or tomograph is a cylindrical tubewhich is surrounded by a large magnet. In the center of the scanner is a movable table for the person being diagnosed. Then the patient is fixed to the table with belts and rollers.
- During diagnostics, a coil is placed on the test area.. If necessary, examine the prostate gland or rectum, the sensor is placed in the rectum for the duration of the study.
- The patient is left alone on the movable table.that fits in the tunnel scanner. At the command of the laboratory technician, the tomograph begins scanning the pelvic area.
- The device takes up to 100 pictures in one procedure.. The images are a slice of the study area.
- If you want to do an MRI with a radiopaque substance, the patient is administered gadolinium. The study begins immediately after the injection of a contrast agent, while it is in the bloodstream of the body. The dosage of the contrast agent is calculated based on the weight of the patient.
- The time of magnetic tomography is from 30 to 60 minutes. All this time, the patient must be in a fixed position for better visualization. The patient can communicate with the doctor via radio.
- During diagnosis, the patient does not experience pain. Sometimes patients feel heat in the pelvic area, which is the body's physiological response to a magnetic field.
- The patient may experience discomfort during the operation of the scannerthat creates noise and cod sounds. Headphones may be offered to reduce patient discomfort.
- With claustrophobia In a patient, an MRI scan is recommended on an open-type apparatus.
Are there any risks to this study for the patient?
Magnetic resonance imaging is the safest for an ordinary patient, if you follow the safety instructions.
Yet there are certain risks:
- In rare cases, tomography with a contrast agent can cause an allergic reaction. An allergic reaction is manifested in the form of rash, itching and swelling of the face. To exclude this complication, the patient is tested for an allergic reaction to gadolinium on the eve of the study. Therefore, the risks for the patient are minimized.
- There is also a risk of kidney damage with a contrast agent if the patient has diabetes or kidney disease.
Benefits of MRI
MRI of the pelvis in men has a lot of various advantages, which include:
- To perform a study of the pelvic organs, there is no need for surgery, since the MRI technique is non-invasive, that is, it does not require disrupting the integrity of the skin.
- Through the MRI technique, it is possible to obtain a high-quality image in bulk form.
- MRI of the pelvic organs in men provides the ability to visualize various defects and anomalies, which is simply impossible using other means.
- To obtain the highest-quality image of the studied organ or body part, a contrast agent is used. It is a completely safe and harmless remedy, which is a gadolinium salt.
- The diagnostic method is completely painless, so there is no need to use local painkillers.
- When a person is scanned, x-rays are absent, as is inherent in computed tomography. This means that the technique is completely safe and can be re-conducted in literally five minutes.
It is important to know! The weight of the advantages of the method makes it one of the most expensive non-invasive procedures.
Indications for conducting pelvic tomography in men
A man is recommended to undergo magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvic organs in the event of one of the following indications:
- At detection of a tumor and other neoplasms in the scrotum.
- If you have complaints of pain of a different nature in the lower abdomen.
- In the presence of concomitant signs of disorders in the circulatory system.
- When an abnormality occurs in the femur.
- In case of hip damage.
- If appropriate, the appearance of signs of frustration of uration.
- Various pathologies of the urogenital system.
Magnetic research is also appointed in the case when it is planned to carry out surgery to remove various types of neoplasms. An MRI scan will show the exact location of various neoplasms, as well as help identify the smallest tumors and metastases.
Who is shown to undergo an MRI
An MRI examination is prescribed by the attending physician if there are suspicions of serious pathology, as well as to prevent the occurrence of such pathologies. Men should not think so that the doctor sends to this type of diagnosis only in very severe cases. The earlier and more accurately the pathology can be determined, the more effective the result will be. After all, most diseases can be cured successfully in the early stages of development.
For prophylactic purposes, it is recommended to undergo magnetic resonance imaging of the urinary tract and pelvic organs for all men over 40 years old. In MRI, this category of men needs for the simple reason that it is at this age that the risk of developing such a disease as prostate cancer increases. It is impossible to determine cancerous tumors by conventional diagnostic methods, therefore it is very important to undergo magnetic resonance imaging.
It is important to know! The more often a man will undergo various diagnostic methods, the lower the risk of serious complications. Indeed, according to statistics, about 40% of men have diseases of the pelvic organs: the bladder, rectum or lymph nodes.
What does the MRI show
Magnetic resonance tomography allows detecting pathologies not only in the early stages of development, but also in the later ones. This is especially true when the disease is characterized by the manifestation of the corresponding symptoms in the late stages of development. The fact that MRI shows the small pelvis, can be obtained from a specialist who performs an MRI, or read in conclusion. Through this technique, the following pathologies are identified:
- Tumors of the malignant nature of the bladder.
- Tumors of the pelvis and ureter.
- Adenoma or carcinoma of the prostate.
- Necrotic ailments of the femoral head.
- Injuries to the femoral neck.
- Arthrosis of the hip joint.
It is important to know! Through the results of magnetic resonance imaging, it is possible to determine the smallest foci of tumor processes, as well as other types of diseases. All this is manifested because in the images the resulting image has the form of slices in different projections. Tomography manages to get as many shots as necessary to determine the pathology.
Features of preparation for MRI
Before being diagnosed with MRI, a man needs to go through some stages of preparation. What is included in the preparation for MRI of the small pelvis among men, we learn further.
- 2-3 days before the study, it will be necessary to eliminate from the diet the use of such food and beverages that contribute to the formation of excess gas formation.
- The day before the procedure, you can take activated carbon or Espumizan to eliminate the occurrence of increased gas formation.
- Preparation for the study is based on cleansing the intestines, which is done with a cleansing enema.
- Food and fluids should be avoided on the day of the MRI.
- Preparation for the pelvic MRI procedure includes taking the No-Shpy pill half an hour before the diagnosis.
- The specialist will also need to provide all the available information about the patient's health, as well as about the absence of contraindications.
If you plan to conduct diagnostics with contrast, it is necessary to additionally make a test for the presence of allergies. This is done so that after the introduction of contrast into the body does not entail the occurrence of serious complications in the form of allergic reactions.
It is important to know! Despite the safety of contrasting substances, in some cases they can provoke signs of allergic reactions. That is why it is not recommended to perform MRI with contrast for children up to 3-5 years old, pregnant and lactating mothers.
Preparing for an MRI should also be done by removing jewelry, glasses, lenses, watches and other items that can put not only the process itself, but also have a negative impact on the final results of the study. All that is required of the patient is to follow all the instructions of the specialist. How to prepare for the study procedure can also be clarified in the clinic where the patient is recorded, because they have special notes with recommendations for patients.
Contraindications for MRI
In the presence of one of the following contraindications, an MRI scan is prohibited, but an appropriate decision is made in each individual case. These contraindications include:
- Metal and electronic implants.
- Disease claustrophobia and other psychological disorders.
- Pregnancy in the first trimester.
- The presence of tattoos.
- Patient weight in excess of 120 kg.
If you decide that an MRI patient is contraindicated, then the decision is made about the passage of other alternative diagnostic methods. If the patient is allergic to contrast agents, the MRI is performed without their use. In the case of the presence of metal implants in the body, it is required to ascertain their location, as well as the materials from which they are made. With some metal implants you can undergo diagnostics, only you need to pre-configure the device.
Features of the MRI
How do the procedure MRI of the small pelvis for men, we consider in more detail. The MRI device is a large capsule, inside which is a sliding table. Томографы бывают двух типов: открытого и закрытого типа.At present, only closed type tomographs are used, through which it is possible to obtain an image in three-dimensional graphics.
It is important to know! Closed-type tomographs are divided into low-power, medium-power, high-power and ultra-high-power. To obtain the highest-quality image of the examined organ, it is required to carry out diagnostics on the last two types of tomographs.
If you plan to carry out diagnostics with contrast, then pre-put a test for signs of allergies. When using a contrast agent, the duration of the procedure increases. Before you make a diagnosis, you must visit a general practitioner who will examine the patient. MRI can be performed if a person has no viral and colds.
The procedure for examining the pelvic organ is carried out according to the following principle:
- The patient is located on a special retractable table scanner.
- The specialist fixes the patient's body with straps, after which a coil is installed over the area under investigation.
- The patient moves inside the capsule, after which the device is started.
- During the operation of the tomograph, the patient hears the noise of a working device. Throughout the process, the patient can have a conversation with a specialist in a special communication device.
- The duration of the diagnostic study is 40 minutes and more.
- When the process ends, the patient can leave the room, and then wait in the corridor of results.
- The specialist writes the conclusion on the basis of the received images, and then issues them to the patient. Based on these results, the patient must consult an appropriate physician.
During the diagnosis, the patient does not feel pain symptoms. The contrast agent can be administered either by intravenous jet or drip. If after the end of the diagnosis the patient does not feel discomfort, then he can go home, but preferably accompanied by a loved one.
Summing up, it is important to note that magnetic resonance tomography of the pelvis in men provides an opportunity to identify various types of pathologies, as well as other ailments that are not amenable to detection by other means. If the doctor recommends an MRI, you should not refuse, even despite the high cost of this method, because life is more precious than any money.
The principle of operation and advantages of the method
The technology used is based on the principle of nuclear magnetic resonance. The nuclei of atoms of some chemical elements are able to absorb and then radiate the energy generated by electromagnetic fields. Hardware installation creates a constantly adjustable exposure. It forms waves that affect the nuclei of hydrogen that are present in large quantities in the human body.
The reaction initiates the movement of protons aligned with or multidirectional to the magnetic field of the instrument. After shutting down the installation, part of the protons returns to its original position. Their energy is captured and recorded by the tomograph's sensor system. Observing the elementary particles, it is possible to reveal in which tissue a particular atom is located. A computer program processes this data and provides an image of the area of interest. The doctor for the diagnosis receives a layered picture of the diseased area.
Modern equipment works in different modes. There are programs for suppressing fat, recognizing signals coming from free fluid. Selecting the best option, the specialist can study in detail the internal structure and note the characteristic changes. In order to obtain a clearer image, a contrast agent is sometimes used (a solution based on gadolinium chelate). Such a gain is used:
- to assess the dynamics of the treatment,
- for more accurate diagnosis of small pathological foci: cysts, tumors,
- to reduce the speed of the procedure,
- for taking pictures of one organ in different planes of high quality.
MRI - specifying diagnostic method. He gives answers to specifically posed questions. For the procedure, you must obtain an appointment of the attending physician. A surgeon, oncologist or urologist can write it out.
Indications and contraindications
Most often, MRI is used to study the prostate gland as accurately as possible. It helps to identify tumors, inflammatory processes that develop in the bladder, rectum, peritoneum and lymph nodes. The procedure is also important for studying adjacent tissues. Under the supervision of an experienced specialist, she can show:
- the presence of benign or malignant tumors: tumors of the prostate gland, urinary tract, testicles,
- the spread of the pathological process - the presence of metastases,
- the size of education
- the location of the hearth,
- nature of inflammation: infiltrates, abscesses,
- vascular pathology: thrombosis, aneurysm, hypoplasia,
- congenital malformations of the lower part,
- consequences of injury or surgery
- omission of the organs located in the pelvis.
The appearance of magnetic resonance imaging helped to solve the problem of the impossibility of carrying out other methods of examination: transrectal ultrasound, endoscopy, X-ray - due to lack of access, the presence of contraindications or technical impossibility of execution. With the help of MRI can determine the stage of oncological processes. Previously, to do this without a biopsy was not possible.
In view of non-invasiveness and the absence of any exposures, there is a list of relative contraindications for magnetic resonance imaging. The procedure should be abandoned:
- men weighing more than 120 kg
- patients with decompensated heart failure,
- claustrophobic patients
- children up to four years.
An absolute contraindication is to conduct an MRI to people inside whom metal implants (pacemakers, vascular clips, plates for osteosynthesis) or electronic devices (defibrillator) are installed, to those who have metal fragments, titanium structures in the spine.
Preparing for the survey
To obtain the most accurate picture of the disease, it is necessary to prepare in advance for an MRI. Patients are recommended:
- for the day to refuse the use of products, the digestion of which contributes to the strengthening of gas formation,
- two days to start taking absorbent drugs and myotropic antispasmodics,
- on the eve do an enema,
- two hours before the MRI, drink one and a half liters of water and take activated carbon,
- on the procedure come on an empty stomach - the last meal should be no later than six hours before the start of the survey.
You can enter the diagnostic center in any clothes, as long as there are no metal elements on it (hooks, fasteners, buttons, rivets). The doctor may ask to remove the belt, cufflinks, pants with a zipper, precious jewelry, watches, glasses, hearing aids, inset jaws, if any. In the room where there is a tomograph, you can not make a bunch of keys, credit cards, media players, electronic devices. In case of emergency, training is not required.
During preparation for MRI of the pelvis with contrast, a special substance is intravenously injected into the man immediately before the procedure. With the help of the circulatory system it spreads throughout the body and accumulates in pathological formations. The use of contrast allows you to highlight and better visualize the studied structures. It does not carry any threat to life, is rapidly excreted from the body, does not cause allergic reactions.
The appearance of side effects recorded in isolated cases. Some patients noted a rash on their skin after an MRI with contrast, others complained of headache or dizziness. Experts attribute these deviations to the individual intolerance of the drug used for contrast.
Side effects occur in 0.1% of cases. They quickly pass without additional treatment.
Types of procedures and technique
MRI is performed in a special room. The doctor directs the patient to the device and lays it on the table, which is equipped so that the patient can lie comfortably in a horizontal position. By pressing a button, the specialist transports the patient to the hole of a large magnet. The scanning procedure begins. It is accompanied by certain noises. They do not need to be afraid.
When conducting a study, the patient should not move. His main task is to lie flat and relaxed. The duration of one session on average is 20-40 minutes. If a person starts to feel bad while holding it, he can give a signal to the doctor: there is an alarm button under his right hand. After the end of the scan there are no restrictions.
Magnetic resonance imaging - a tool for obtaining images. He cannot simultaneously take pictures, make a conclusion and make a diagnosis. It is the responsibility of the radiologist. Report preparation takes an average of thirty minutes. A simple person can not independently understand the analyzes, after the decryption, the results of the study are sent to the attending physician.
Unlike CT in the implementation of MRI is not any radiation, so the procedure is completely safe for the sick person. However, before it is carried out, it is necessary to examine the patient's kidneys: some pathologies after electromagnetic exposure may cause the development of nephrogenic system syndrome.
In men, it is better to conduct diagnostics on open-type equipment.
On average in the country, the price of MRI of the small pelvis in men ranges from 4,500 to 11,000 thousand rubles. Determining the cost depends on various factors: the prestige of the clinic, the professionalism of the workers, the qualifications of the diagnostician. The service includes a snapshot, a doctor's opinion and oral recommendations.
Decoding analysis and further action
The decoding of an MRI should be entrusted to a qualified radiologist. In the vast expanses of information resources, there are often requests for help decoding MRI. Although such requests are rash due to the fact that the patient trusts a person who may not have the necessary knowledge to interpret the images.
Only a qualified radiologist can analyze the results of the images. The radiologist has a specialized education, an adequate level of knowledge and experience. MRI specialists constantly undergo training and attend seminars and conferences in order to accurately diagnose diseases.
If necessary, other types of research may be prescribed:
- CT scan,
- Instrumental research methods.
So, we can draw the following conclusions:
- The timely conduct of magnetic resonance imaging eliminates the complications of many diseases of the small pelvis.
- The high accuracy of the study allows you to make an accurate diagnosis, and therefore assign the correct treatment.
- The annual preventive passage of MRI allows men after 45-50 years of age to detect prostate and testicular cancer in the early stages. When diagnosing cancer in the early stages, it can be successfully cured than in a neglected form.
- MRI of the small pelvis allows with high accuracy to identify the cause of the disease of the urogenital system using a three-dimensional image.
If your doctor has prescribed an MRI, you should not be afraid, more often this study is carried out with a prophylactic purpose or to accurately diagnose the disease. Early diagnosis of diseases will help save time and money, and most importantly maintain health.
MRI as an indispensable diagnosis of the genitourinary system in men
Thanks to the capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging, it became possible to identify pathologies of the male genitourinary system at the initial stages of their development. This contributes to their early recovery and prevents the transition to a chronic stage, which is difficult to treat with therapeutic methods.
A timely diagnosed and cured disease leaves little to no effect and does not lead to dysfunctions of the male genital organs, ensuring a strong gender and high quality social and personal life. The combination of such qualities as non-invasiveness, speed, high accuracy and informativeness makes it possible to identify with the help of MRI of the pelvic organs in men diseases that are not subject to other diagnostic methods.
This examination is widely used in surgery, urology and coloproctology. The study provides recognition of pathologies of the rectum, bladder, ureters, prostate gland, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, scrotum, vessels and lymph nodes of the pelvis, the lower part of the peritoneum and other organs located in this area.
Modern equipment is equipped with special programs that suppress errors that are created by the fatty layer, and are able to recognize the signals reflected from fluid accumulation in various organs. This makes MRI a unique and ultra-accurate method of diagnosis.
General indications for examination of the small pelvis in males
MRI of the pelvis for men is a fairly frequent appointment, because it shows both large pathological foci and the smallest structural tissue damage that are inaccessible to other methods. Magnetic resonance imaging is used not only to confirm various pathologies that have been identified when certain symptoms are present, but also after passing less informative examinations.
It can also serve as a prophylactic method by detecting primary changes in the tissue structure of the organs that do not require the use of therapy — they may be sufficiently changing lifestyle or the patient’s well-established behavior. MRI is performed in the pelvic region:
- with injuries, lower abdomen bruises, genitals,
- painful sensations in the lumbosacral spine,
- violation of urination and erectile function,
- suspected tumors,
- pathologies of the pelvic vessels,
- complications associated with the postoperative period,
- with congenital anomalies of the kidneys, ureters and genitals,
- infectious and inflammatory processes of the urogenital system,
- acute pain, in the presence of stones in the bladder or in its ducts.
This procedure is often prescribed after examination by narrow specialists - surgeons, oncologists or urologists. It can also be recommended after an ultrasound scan if confirmation of the diagnosis is required based on previous results, which are subject to some doubts on the part of diagnosticians. Depending on the stage at which the disease is detected, the speed and success of the prescribed therapy directly depend. Therefore, it is not necessary to delay the visit to the relevant specialists and aggravate the development of the disease with a high probability of complications.
What diseases of the male genitalia can be detected by MRI of the pelvis?
Thin and scrupulous diagnosis of male genital organs with modern possibilities of medicine without MRI is no longer possible. With its help and without additional efforts, the smallest parts of organs or pathologically changed foci practically invisible to other examinations are studied in detail. In many cases, associated with disorders of the male genitalia, one of the first to diagnose the prostate gland (prostate), scrotum organs, and inguinal canals.
The prostate is the male organ most often exposed to various pathologies, especially of an oncological nature. After 40 years, all males, regardless of the type and type of professional activity, are recommended to visit the urologist annually and undergo a prostate exam.
At the slightest suspicion of dysfunction, the doctor may prescribe an MRI of the prostate, which will detect tumors of both malignant and benign nature. The procedure will ensure recognition of even insignificant nodal clusters and will provide the necessary information for their differentiated analysis.
During the examination, the prevalence of the pathological process, sprouting of the walls of the bladder and rectum, the degree of damage to the seminal vesicles, glandular capsule, fatty tissue and enlarged lymph nodes are clearly visible. The completeness of the data will enable the doctor to decide on the appointment of the most effective treatment and to achieve the optimal result in the shortest possible time.
MRI of the prostate gland allows you to:
- study in detail the structure of the organ, localization and prevalence of the pathological process, damage to the surrounding tissues and lymph nodes,
- detect benign (adenoma) and malignant neoplasms, acute and chronic foci of inflammation,
- differentiate stages of oncological processes with a high probability of reliability,
- to determine the smallest changes in the tissues of the gland in the initial stages of the onset of pathology,
- контрастирование в динамике позволяет оценить не только кровоснабжение железы, но и размеры пораженного участка, что важно при выборе терапевтической тактики.
To perform a biopsy puncture, it is necessary to identify a clear localization of the pathological focus, therefore, an MRI should always be done in advance. But after taking the biomaterial, the procedure should not be done earlier than in 1–1.5 months, as there may be blood clots in the gland that will distort the data obtained.
Examination of the scrotum and inguinal canals
For diagnosing the pathologies of the scrotum and inguinal canals, MRI has become an indispensable method, providing a thorough study of the smallest structures. No other provides an opportunity to assess the affected areas in this area without exposing the patient to harmful or painful effects.
An MRI scan in the groin and scrotum area is successfully detected and assessed in detail:
- pathology of lymph nodes - their increase, violation of the structure, the formation of secondary changes,
- tumors of the testes and their appendages,
- diseases of the testicular vessels, its appendages and spermatic cord,
- congenital anomalies of testicular development: atrophy (decrease in size or volume), dystopia (pathological location), cryptorchidism (underscoring in the scrotum),
- injuries of the scrotum: hematomas, hemorrhage, violation of the integrity of the tissues, the size of the lesions and their localization,
- the presence of hernias in the inguinal canals (with a study of the contents of the hernial sac).
Thanks to such thorough research, the doctor can easily see even minor changes and create a complete picture of the pathological condition of the diagnosed organ, which is very important when prescribing therapy.
Preparation for the diagnosis of the pelvis
To prepare for an MRI of the pelvis, the patient will not need to perform any complex actions. However, for high-quality visualization of the study area and to obtain reliable results, it is necessary to adhere to some recommendations.
A day before the diagnosis, products containing rough fiber (vegetables, especially cabbage, fruits), black bread, dairy products and carbonated drinks should be excluded from the usual diet. In order to avoid increased gas formation, the preparation includes the use of activated carbon (2 tablets per 10 kg of weight) or any other sorbents, for example, Espumizan.
For men with normal bowel function, it is enough in the morning before a routine emptying it, and for constipated people, a cleansing enema should be given. Half an hour before the start of the survey, it is necessary to take 2-3 tablets of an antispasmodic drug - “No-shpa” or similar according to the action of an agent that promotes removal of muscle tone in the pelvis.
It is recommended, in addition to the referral from the attending physician, to take all the medical documents relating to the area of examination - discharge from medical records, the results of previous tests. This will help the diagnostician more accurately plan the procedure.
The course of the survey
Immediately before the procedure, the patient must remove himself from all metal (with the exception of titanium) objects - glasses, watches, dentures or hearing aids. All the rest, for example, jewelry or watches, it is better not to wear when visiting diagnostic events of a similar nature.
The subject is placed on the couch of the tomograph, for complete immobility, his body can sometimes be fixed in case there is no certainty that he will be able to live without movement during the diagnosis. In some situations, a single dose of sedatives is prescribed.
The procedure itself lasts no more than 20–40 minutes, without delivering any unpleasant or painful sensations to the patient. In order that the noise of the working apparatus does not interfere, you can use earplugs and in addition to rest during the examination. When using contrast enhancement to improve the accuracy of the results obtained, the procedure time increases by about 2 times due to waiting for the spread of the injected substances in the tissue cells.
The MRI has no effect on the patient's condition, so after the end of the procedure and obtaining decoded results, the past examination can be engaged in any activity that is familiar to him without any restrictions.
What shows MRI of the pelvis in men?
A pelvic examination is quite difficult. This method allows you to explore the pelvic organs without harm to the body. The pelvic cavity in men includes the sigmoid colon, bladder, prostate gland, the sacrococcygeal joint, the bones of the womb. MRI in the study of this area for the most part used in the diagnosis of cancer. The possibilities of ultrasound and CT (computed tomography) are limited and require additional examination of the organs. MRI also allows you to find the source of the disease. Acute, chronic inflammatory diseases, vascular pathology, tumors that need immediate surgery, are detected and diagnosed very accurately.
Since the tomograph has a high resolution, one millimeter thick slices are obtained in the study. Due to a thorough examination on an MRI scanner, the detection of a tumor can be recognized at the very beginning of its development.
Symptoms for the appointment of magnetic resonance imaging:
- swelling or swelling of the testicles or scrotum
- testicular ectopia (if it is not possible to detect the testicle using ultrasound)
- pains in the abdomen and pelvic area, the causes of which are unknown
- difficulty urinating, urinary retention
MRI of the pelvic organs in men is also prescribed for the following indications:
- detection of pathologies as a result of X-ray examination
- congenital hip defects
- injuries or wounds of this area
- sensations of pain in the hip area for unknown reasons.
In the diagnosis of diseases of the prostate gland MRI is also indispensable. As with all other human organs, tomography is usually used to detect prostate cancer. In addition, MR imaging is used to diagnose and other diseases of the prostate gland and seminal vesicles.
Tomography is carried out with the help of powerful magnets and small sensors. This takes several pictures of the study area. X-rays are not used during the procedure. That is, the study in no way affects human health.
Contraction tomography is usually prescribed to confirm the presence of cancer of the prostate gland, lymphatic system, urinary tract and other organs of this cavity.
What are the merits of research?
The advantages of such a diagnosis are as follows:
- surgical intervention is not performed to visualize the pelvic organs,
- with tomography you can get a high quality image
- it shows abnormalities in the development of organs that are not visualized by other diagnostic methods,
- gadolinium drug is harmless to humans
- tomography can detect the slightest changes in the studied organs,
- This is a completely safe diagnostic measure for the patient.
What are the symptoms prescribed tomography of the pelvic organs?
This study is recommended for men with these symptoms.
- Tumor and other inclusions in the scrotum.
- Cryptorchidism, which is not visible on ultrasound.
- Pain in the pelvic region or lower abdomen.
- Disorders of uriation.
- All kinds of disorders of the sexual sphere.
- Disturbances in the circulatory system of the organs studied.
- Pain, indicating the presence of stones in the urinary ducts.
- Pathological results obtained by radiography of the pelvic bones.
- Anomalies of the femur.
- Various hip injuries.
- Pain in the thigh carved origin.
MDT of the pelvis - cancer of the right lobe of the prostate gland
MRI of the pelvis should also be done if a malignant tumor or metastases in the pelvic area are to be identified. Such a study will provide an opportunity to choose the most appropriate type of treatment. Without it, it is also impossible to determine the stages of the malignant process of the prostate, rectum, genital organs of men.
Who needs to do this research?
Many men are afraid to undergo magnetic resonance imaging due to the stereotype, as if sent to it exclusively in severe pathologies. This is not entirely true. Of great importance is the prophylactic passage of magnetic resonance imaging. This is due to the fact that many pathologies of the pelvic organs are successfully diagnosed and treated in the early stages. But they can only be detected using a magnetic resonance imager.
This examination should be passed to all men over the age of forty.. The fact is that in this age group the risk of prostate cancer increases significantly. High mortality from this disease is explained precisely by the fact that it is difficult to diagnose by conventional methods. If with their help cancer becomes noticeable, this indicates that he has already managed to infect not only the prostate, but also nearby organs.
Men need to undergo this type of diagnosis in order to detect pathologies of other organs located in this area. In particular, these are diseases of the bladder, rectum, lymph nodes.
What does the study show?
Despite the fact that MRI was spread only a few decades ago, it makes it possible to detect ill-recognized diseases of these organs. This is especially true for diseases with late onset of symptoms.
With the help of magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis in men can detect such diseases.
- Malignant tumors of the bladder.
- Malignant tumors of the pelvis or ureter, spreading from the kidneys.
- Colorectal carcinoma.
Carcinoma or prostate adenoma.
- Necrotic diseases of the femoral head.
- Arthrosis of the hip joint.
- Injuries to the femoral neck.
With the help of MRI can detect the smallest foci of the tumor process, as well as other diseases. This is because the doctor receives the image in different projections. Tomography can give exactly the number of slices, which is necessary for the detection of the disease.
MRI scan shows rectal cancer (red arrow)
In other words, the doctor not only sees the organ completely, but is also able to examine in detail all the processes occurring inside it. The three-dimensional image is extremely convenient to determine in detail any change in shape, tissue structure.
How is magnetic resonance imaging performed?
An MRI machine is a large cylindrical tube that is surrounded by a magnet. In the process of researching a person is on the table, which can move to the center of the magnet. An open-type tomograph surrounds the patient not entirely. They are used for patients suffering from fear of confined spaces or overweight. However, in some models of open-type tomographs, the magnetic field is not so powerful, so in such cases it will be difficult to get a normal image.
During MRI, a coil is placed on the area of interest. During the entire procedure (up to 45 minutes), the patient should not move. If a study is performed with a radiopaque substance, the procedure time increases.
As a radiopaque substance is administered the drug gadolinium. It is safe for humans and in very rare cases causes allergies. A contrast agent is injected into the vein. The study is done immediately after gadolinium was injected, until blood flow spreads it throughout the body.
During the procedure, the patient does not feel pain. At the same time, some patients may feel warmth in the pelvic area. This is the physiological reaction of the human body to the magnetic field. And although the subject is alone in the equipment room, he can still communicate with the doctor via radio. The patient is in sight of the doctor. After the procedure, he does not need to undergo adaptation.
In andrology and urology, MRI is widely used in the diagnosis of the following diseases:
- malignant and benign tumors (tumors of the prostate gland, testicles, urinary tract) with the identification of regional metastases, cysts,
- vascular pathology (aneurysm, thrombosis, malformation, hypoplasia),
- congenital anomalies of organ development,
- inflammatory processes (infiltrates, abscesses, changes in the structure of the affected organ),
- consequences of injuries and surgical interventions,
- omission of internal organs.
The result obtained during the MRI diagnosis, more accurate
With the advent of MRI, the problem of low informativeness or the impossibility of carrying out other methods of research, such as ultrasound, endoscopy, and radiography, has been practically solved. The most frequent of them are the lack of access, the presence of contraindications, the technical impossibility of execution and the human factor.
With the help of tomography, it is possible to identify the pathology of parenchymatous organs (prostate gland), while ultrasound does not always make it possible to evaluate the complete picture of the disease. X-ray examination allows only indirect conclusions about the state of cartilage and ligamentous structures on the basis of the relative position of the skeletal bones, but these structures themselves are not visible on the X-ray. Finally, using MRI, it is possible to visualize and determine the types of neoplasms, their stages, which previously could not have been possible without a biopsy. For the study of hollow organs and blood vessels, contrasting with the use of gadolinium - a hypoallergenic rare-earth metal is used.
One of the most advanced examples of using NMR is virtual endoscopy - the creation of a three-dimensional model of the test organ.
Topography of the pelvic organs in men
Diseases that can be diagnosed with a small pelvis MRI:
- Pathology of the bladder:
- Urachus cysts,
- tumors, benign and malignant,
- Prostate pathology,
- benign hyperplasia,
- prostate cancer,
- Pathology of seminal vesicles:
With the help of MRI diagnosed pathology of the pelvic organs
- agenesis of seminal vesicles,
- Peyronie's disease
- fibrous changes of the cavernous body,
- cavernous thrombosis,
- tumors of the penis and testicle,
- spermatic cord lipoma,
- testicle abscess,
At the junction of clinical urology and neurology, MRI is informative in identifying neurogenic causes of pelvic disorders (tumors, spinal cord cysts, disc herniation, myelopathy).
The principle of MRI
The basis of this technique is the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). This name may seem frightening, but there is nothing here that would be associated with radioactive exposure. We are talking about the ability to absorb or emit electromagnetic energy by the nuclei of atoms of a number of chemical elements. For this purpose, they are excited by a certain spectrum of electromagnetic waves in a constantly generated magnetic field. Hydrogen atoms are used as objects on which they act, since the human body is saturated with them due to its biochemical composition.
The doctor receives a layer-by-layer image of the study area for diagnosis.
The magnetic field of high intensity, acting on the nucleus of the hydrogen atom, induces a change in the position in space of the only elementary particle of which it consists - the proton. In this case, the magnetic moment of the proton can be in the same direction or in different directions in the magnetic field. After the termination of the latter, part of the protons, which have changed their direction, return to their original state, releasing energy, which is recorded by the tomograph's sensor system. Based on the observation of the reaction of protons, it is possible to reveal in which tissue a particular atom is located. By means of a special computer processing of data from the sensors, the doctor receives a layer-by-layer image of the studied area.