How to take care of a newborn girl in the first month of life after the maternity hospital: features of hygiene, bathing and care
The newly born child is not yet adapted to life outside of her mother's abdomen, therefore the neonatal period is a very important and crucial period for each family. Young parents have many questions, especially if this is their first baby. And if there are no experienced grandmothers or other assistants around, then sometimes moms and dads feel very insecure.
Proper care of a newborn child is a science. However, it is comprehended very easily, because at the genetic level in a person all the information about caring for babies is laid. Your maternal instinct will tell you how best to care for crumbs, and we, in turn, will tell you the main features of caring for a newborn baby, so that you can feel confident when starting daily procedures.
Features care for newborn children
In the first days and even months of life after birth, the baby needs first of all food and mother's attention. He often eats and sleeps a lot, so the characteristics of caring for an infant are associated primarily with the proper organization of breastfeeding on demand and in compliance with the regimen that parents produce based on the needs of their baby. The regime we include the organization of outdoor walks, the execution of the morning toilet and daily baths for the newborn.
Features of care for infants are directly related to hygiene. Hygiene procedures should be an integral part of the life of the baby and his mother. And if at first the process of washing, cleaning the nose and cutting nails causes fear in young mothers, then after a few days it becomes the norm.
In fact, the whole day of the newborn baby consists of feeding, sleeping (indoors and outdoors) and hygiene procedures. If young parents have the necessary information about caring for a newborn or already have experience, then they will be ready for any whims of the crumbs.
Caring for a newborn baby in the first month of life
Not so long ago, the nurses in the maternity hospital provided care for the newborn in the first days of life, while the mother was in a separate ward and received her baby only for feeding. Under such conditions, getting home after discharge, the young girl had absolutely no experience in caring for the baby. Now, in most cases, mothers are in the same room with their children, which means they are learning the rules for caring for babies from their early days. Caring for a baby in the first month of life is a very important event, and, fortunately, doctors and nurses advise young girls on all issues in the maternity hospital.
Caring for a newborn in the maternity hospital
Newborn care begins in the maternity ward immediately after the baby is born. First of all, it removes mucus and amniotic fluid from the nose and mouth with a special suction. The umbilical cord is cut off and the umbilical cord is processed, and the skin is wiped with special wipes to clean the body of the child from mucus and original lubrication. It should be noted that in different maternity hospitals the first toilet of a newborn may differ in the composition of procedures.
Sometimes the skin and the head are not rubbed, but they immediately spread the baby to the mother on the stomach, since the original lubricant protects the child’s body.
After all the necessary procedures and examinations, mother and baby are transferred to the ward, where they are visited by a neonatologist and a pediatric nurse. They examine the baby and tell how to properly care for a newborn baby in the hospital and after discharge.
- The nurse will teach the young mother to wash the baby off, swaddle, put on and perform the necessary hygienic procedures.
- A breastfeeding specialist or a pediatrician will teach you how to properly attach a baby to your breast, which is important for organizing feeding.
- In the maternity hospital, the child is examined daily by a pediatrician, takes measurements and assesses the general condition.
- At discharge, the specialists must give the mother all the recommendations for the care of the baby.
Care of the newborn after discharge from the hospital
And finally you are at home! You have already learned the basics of caring for a newborn in the hospital, have all the necessary information from the experts. It's time to show yourself. In fact, caring for a newborn at home after discharge is not much different from what was in the hospital. Feeding on demand, hygiene and good sleep in silence are the main tenets of child care. You need to conveniently organize the space of the room in which you will live with the baby. This will require not only a cot, but also a changing table or board to perform hygienic procedures.
- Keep the room clean, preferably wet daily.
- The air temperature, comfortable for the newborn, is about 20 degrees. The main thing - to avoid drafts and overheating.
- When caring for your baby after childbirth, do not hesitate to ask for help from your family members. Even with the use of diapers, daily washing becomes an integral part of mom's life: diapers and baby clothes are constantly getting dirty.
- Wash them separately from adult linen with a special hypoallergenic powder.
- Ironing of baby clothes is also necessary, because the baby’s skin is very delicate.
Daily care for the newborn
Daily care for an infant consists of many small things. In the morning before the first feeding mother performs the morning hygienic procedures. We will talk about them separately. It is recommended to flush the child throughout the day after each change of the diaper. Use wet wipes should be only when there is no possibility to wash with water. In this case, the girls are washed away from the front to the rear.
A newborn baby must be bathed daily. Until the umbilical wound has healed, it is done in a baby bath, preferably in the evening, before the last feeding. Every day the bath is washed with baby soap or soda. Bathing water temperature should be 36 - 37 degrees.
After washing, the baby's skin should be gently wetted with a soft towel and, if necessary, lubricated with baby milk. It is convenient to clean the nose of the child with cotton-wool turunds just after washing, since the crusts in the nose soften and easily go outside.
What you need to care for the newborn during hygiene procedures:
- sterile cotton and wadded disks,
- baby cream and milk,
- water thermometer
- hydrogen peroxide,
- soap for washing and for bath washing.
Morning care for a newborn
Morning hygiene of the newborn - this is what begins every day with mom and baby.
- All procedures are performed before the first morning feeding, when the child is not yet hungry and is in a good mood.
- Conducting the morning toilet of a newborn begins with the treatment of eyes, nose, ears and, if necessary, the mouth. Eyes are washed with wet tampons in the direction from the outer to the inner corner. In addition, for each eye should be its own cotton pad. Spout washed with sea water and remove the crusts with a cotton turunda.
- In addition, the morning procedures for a newborn include the treatment of an umbilical wound: a drop of hydrogen peroxide is instilled into the wound, and then gently soaked with a cotton swab or swab, removing the soaked crusts.
- Ears should be checked for the absence of diaper rash, it is necessary to get wet with a turunda only after washing.
- The oral cavity is processed only in the presence of thrush in accordance with the recommendations of the doctor.
- During the morning hygiene of the newborn, you need to check all the folds for the presence of diaper rash and, if necessary, treat them with a special cream and powder.
- Washing the baby is also necessarily included in the morning to-do list.
Intimate hygiene of the newborn girl
In the first days in a newborn girl, vaginal discharge may be observed (mucus mixed with blood). This is a hormonal crisis, which passes in a week. The reason for concern should be pus and unpleasant smell of discharge, their duration and redness of the skin. With this problem you should immediately see a pediatrician who will give recommendations, or refer you to a pediatric gynecologist.
Avoided irritation and infection in the first month of life will allow spent skills to care for a newborn. Mom should remember that you can start intimate care and diaper change only with clean hands. It is necessary to wash the baby with warm water at each change of the diaper (in the morning, before the evening sleep, after 3-4 hours during the day). The procedure is as follows:
- Remains of feces removed with a damp cloth, traces of cream and powder - sterilized oil.
- Initially, the area near the anus is cleaned, after which the external genitals are gently washed with clean hands.
- Hand movements during the procedure - from front to back (to the anus). This will help to wash away the particles of feces, to prevent their penetration into the vagina.
- After processing the anus, wash hands thoroughly and proceed to the toilet of the external genital organs.
- Soap is used after defecation. In other cases, washing with plain water is enough, rinsing with chamomile decoction.
- It is not recommended to use wet wipes instead of washing. They will not replace the water procedure and may even cause allergies. In the clinic and on a walk without napkins can not do.
After the procedure, the child should be laid on the changing table, gently blot the remaining water with a napkin.
For washing the genitals of the girl only running water is used.
Regular water treatments
Bathing after a maternity hospital is another issue that concerns young parents. The first procedure for a newly-minted mother is best done together with her husband, an experienced sister or grandmother of the crumbs. It is advisable to purchase in advance a bath for bathing babies and a special stand where you can put the child, but many parents bathe the babies in the home, previously disinfected bath (we recommend reading: choose the stand for bathing newborns).
Up to 6 months, they bathe the child every day, after six months - once every 2 days and less. During illnesses and vaccinations, bathing is discussed with the doctor.
In order to properly bathe a newborn, it is important to adhere to such recommendations:
- The duration of bathing is determined by the reaction of the child. For the first procedure in life, 5-10 minutes is enough, during which the baby is likely to cry. Gradually, the residence time in the bath can be increased to 40 minutes. From the 3rd month you can attract rattles that will interest the child and turn the bath into an exciting procedure.
- Immersion baby in the water should be smooth, calm. You can first wet the legs, tummy, handles, so that it is accustomed to warm water. You can water from the scoop or shower with a little pressure.
- Shampoos, bathing foam for a newborn girl are used once a week. At other times, bathing is carried out without detergents.
- To prevent diaper rash and redness in the priests, elbows, armpits, labia, it is important to carefully wash each fold.
For more information about the rules of bathing babies, Dr. Komarovsky will tell in the presented video. The advice of this pediatrician helped thousands of mothers to establish and maintain proper care for babies. In this issue, Dr. Komarovsky will tell you how to bathe newborns and give valuable recommendations on personal hygiene.
What should alert the young mother?
During swaddling and changing diapers, it is important for the mother to pay attention to the condition of the external genital organs of the girl and the mammary glands. Symptoms require close attention:
- Adhesion of the labia minora (in medicine is called “synechia”) (we recommend to read: what does synechia adhesion look like and treat for girls?). It indicates excessive secretion and excessive secretion of mucus from the vagina. To prevent synechia, it is important to carefully care for the external genitals of the baby. During a diaper change, they should be gently moved apart, washed without soap, dried, lubricated with a special cream or previously sterilized vegetable oil.
- Swelling of the labia. It occurs with an excess of female hormone, received by the baby from her mother. It will pass in a few weeks.
- Redness, swelling of the mammary glands (we recommend to read: what does the swelling of the mammary glands in infants?). It is not a pathology and speaks about the absence of hormonal balance. The symptom will pass naturally in a few weeks. It is forbidden to rub the mammary glands, to press on them.
- Cream or grayish bloom in the grooves of the labia. This smegma is a secret made by the external genital organs. It is important to remove it, otherwise the reproduction of microbes will lead to an inflammatory process, redness and itching. Remove the smegma with cotton pads soaked in boiled water. Due to the tight consistency of the secret, the procedure is delayed for several days.
The question of bathing the baby can cause a storm of emotions in her mother. On the one hand, I do not want to cause tears in the fragile fragile babe. On the other hand, careful maintenance of cleanliness in the first days will allow you to avoid many problems in the future. With regular implementation of preventive measures and maintaining hygiene, care for a newborn will soon become a habit:
- Airing the skin before changing the diaper. Air baths after washing up will prevent redness and diaper rash. They can take 15 minutes, provided that the temperature in the room is comfortable for the newborn. You can put a girl in a cot as convenient, cover the top with a cotton diaper (we recommend you read: how to sew a cocoon diaper for a newborn with your own hands?).
- The right water temperature for washing and bathing (+ 36-38 degrees). In the first months it is important to observe this thermal regime. As you grow older, the water for washing can be made cooler, especially in hot weather.
- Use boiled water in the first 2 weeks of life. In the future, you can bathe the girl in ordinary water. It is advisable to install cleaning filters to soften and improve the quality of tap water.
- Competent support during washing up. The baby should be placed on the left forearm so that the head is located in the elbow. Then gently press to the body, holding the thigh, to wash out with the right hand.
- Using a separate always cleaned towel for scrubbing. After the procedures, they first wipe the crotch, then the ass with delicate movements. The inner part of the labia do not touch, so as not to disrupt the natural microflora of the vagina.
Being a girl's mother is a great reward for the long 9 months of waiting. Regular intimate hygiene and bathing in the first months of life will allow the baby to grow up healthy and to please caring parents.
Washing and care of the genitals
Care for the genitals of the child should be very carefully from the first days of life. Reproduction in the future depends on proper care. There are basic rules of ritual washing, which are suitable for both girls and boys:
- It is necessary to wash the child under running water of room temperature, preferably after each bowel movement.
- In the first months, in order to avoid dry skin, the use of soap should be minimized.
- It is not recommended to use adult cosmetics for children.
- To avoid discomfort and rubbing, do not use baby oil and powder at the same time. Since the powder will roll.
- If you can not wash off the remnants of the chair, you should carefully remove them with a cotton sponge soaked in baby oil.
- Features of washing away girls.
An important point to pay attention to. In the first weeks of life, girls may have a bright patina on their lips. But parents should not worry, if there is not much of it, it will eventually be absorbed into the skin without additional manipulations, but if the amount exceeds the norm, then it should be carefully removed.
Natural lactic acid in the composition of the plaque can cause irritation and inflammation in a child. To avoid this, you need to gently remove the coating with boiled water at room temperature and a cotton swab. If you repeat this procedure regularly, the plaque will disappear within 3 days. The girl, like the boy, should be washed out after each change of the diaper. Before the procedure, be sure to wash your hands with soap and water. Ополаскивать половые органы следует проточной теплой водой от половых губ до заднего прохода, чтобы остатки кала не вызвали воспалительные процессы. Влажные салфетки использовать на регулярной основе не рекомендуется, лучше оставить их для тех случаев, когда нет возможности подмыть ребенка.
- Особенности подмывания мальчиков.
Experts recommend only external washing of genitals with soap and nothing else. External washing is washing the genitals outside, without invading the baby’s foreskin. It is important to remember that the “penetration” procedure under the boy’s foreskin can cause injury, and we should not forget that regular washing of the genital organs with soap and water can wash all antibacterial grease, which serves as a protective barrier in a child. Over time, the foreskin gradually exfoliates, and the dead cells gradually accumulate under the foreskin. There is nothing terrible in this, since the genital organ is cleaned on its own at the moment of urination. Therefore, additional cleaning processes will not be required.
These features will help to approach the issue of bathing and not harm the child.
Umbilical wound treatment
Particular attention in the first days of the infant's life should be paid to the umbilical wound. It must be remembered that the umbilical wound is the possibility of penetration of infections, so its treatment should be approached competently:
- The umbilical wound should be processed 2 times a day - in the morning and after evening bathing.
- To remove the discharge from the wound, as well as for complete treatment, use 3% hydrogen peroxide and a cotton pad or cotton swab.
- It is important to ensure that there is no peroxide and discharge in the wound.
- After cleansing the umbilical wound, it is smeared with green paint.
Before the start of daily bathing procedures, be sure to clarify all points with the pediatrician. Full bathing of a child is allowed only with a fully healed umbilical wound.
Bathing water should be at room temperature - 36-37 degrees. If from the first days of life you plan to harden the child, you should gradually reduce the temperature of the water.
Four basic rules for swimming:
- Bathing procedure should be daily.
- The air temperature in the bathroom should be comfortable, without drafts.
- You can use cosmetics 1, maximum 2 times a week.
- After bathing, thoroughly dry the baby’s skin. A skin folds dry with great care. To moisturize the skin after bathing, use baby milk, cream or butter.
Caring for a newborn in the first month of life should be correct and with the exact implementation of all important procedures for the child. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the care of the baby’s eyes. Rinse your eyes from the outer edge to the inner, with each eye you need to use a new swab or cotton pad.
If the baby has purulent clots in the corners of the eye, you should use the infusion of chamomile or weakly brewed tea for washing.In the presence of inflammation, it is imperative that you consult a doctor and not use medications yourself.
Marigolds in newborns grow very quickly, and so that the child does not scratch himself when he is awake or awake, he should cut his nails once a week. To do this, buy a special set for a children's manicure. Scissors in it are safe, with rounded edges, therefore, cutting the nails, there will be no danger of injuring the baby. You can also trim the nails on the arms and legs when the child is sleeping, then he does not spin, which simplifies the process.
At the initial stage of the baby’s life, the diaper should be changed regularly. On average 4-6 times. Signal about changing the diaper are the whims of the baby, this procedure is also supposed immediately after feeding.
After washing, dry the crotch and wrinkles so that the baby does not appear diaper after wearing a diaper. During the change of the diaper, you should not forget about what hygiene products the newborn needs, for example, powder or baby cream is perfect for the delicate skin of children's butt. With an open umbilical wound, the diaper should be worn so that it does not touch the umbilical wound and does not irritate the skin.
Important is the process of changing the diaper. It is necessary to carefully lift the baby's ass and skip the bottom of a clean diaper. You need to fasten the diaper tightly, but not tightly, so that between your diaper and the baby's body fit two of your fingers.
Wash and ironed diapers should be used to swaddle a newborn. You need to iron the diaper from all sides. And the presence of the steamer will make it soft and pleasant to touch the calf.
Before swaddling, you should soak the baby and put a clean diaper on it. It is necessary to take into account the temperature in the room, if it is cold, then you need to use two diapers, if the room is hot, then you can use the free diapering principle when the hands of the newborn are over the edge of the diaper.
A child wrapped in a diaper should feel comfortable, should not push or interfere with anything.
Caring for a child from the first days of life is not only maintaining a comfortable living environment and cleanliness of the baby, but also properly chosen clothes. Buy essential clothing for a newborn costs a couple of months before his birth.
There are 6 basic rules for selecting clothes for babies:
- Should choose natural clothes. Cotton is best. Baby's skin is very susceptible, so the artificial fibers in the composition can cause irritation or allergies. Cotton is pleasant to the body, soft and will not cause discomfort in the child.
- First of all, the baby should be comfortable in clothes. Nothing should crush. Therefore, you should avoid clothing with tight elastic bands, buttons or buttons. Clothes with rubber bands can push the handles and neck, and buttons on the back will still push the baby, which will cause discomfort.
- It is very important that all the seams on the clothes are external, then this will help avoid rubbing the skin of the toddler.
- Sliders, T-shirts - everything should be the baby in size. Little clothes will shackle the child, and larger outfits will not allow you to warm up.
- Clothes for the first summer. Summer clothes of the child should easily pass air and moisture. Light bodie or blouse for hot weather just right.
- First winter clothes. The main clothing for the newborn in winter is a jumpsuit. Therefore, when choosing this important item of clothing should pay attention to such moments:
- Type and thickness of insulation.
- External material of overalls.
Breastfeeding is one of the highlights in caring for newborn babies. Feeding a child in the first months of life is a very important process, which must be approached wisely. For the first six months, it is better to feed the baby with breast milk, and from the age of six months it is time to gradually translate it into feeding.
Feeding a child in the first days has no limit on the number, all experts recommend feeding the child according to his wish. It is necessary to give the breast to the baby when he is hungry and asks for food. Thanks to such manipulations, the mother will begin to produce the right amount of milk, which the child consumes at one time. Quite small children can ask for breast up to 15 times a day. It will be correct to listen to the child, he will set the time and scope of feeding. The average feeding time varies from 10 to 40 minutes, it all depends on the feeling of hunger of the child.
Starting from the second week, you can safely go for a walk. Initial walks can be 15-minute, over time, this time should be increased by adding 5-10 minutes. Further, the average walk time will be 2 -3 hours. In the cold season, walks should be prepared carefully. Since the thermoregulation of the newborn is formed gradually, therefore at this stage it is important not to overcool the baby. Experts recommend walking with children several times a day for 30-40 minutes. But time can be adjusted depending on the child's well-being and weather conditions.