The importance of using iodine during pregnancy
During pregnancy, a woman's body more than ever needs vitamins and minerals in order not only to replenish their reserves, but also to give the baby all the best. The health of the child in the future depends entirely on how well the mother was eating during pregnancy. One of the important elements necessary for the safe course of pregnancy is iodine.
Iodine. What is it needed in the body?
Not everyone knows what role this element plays in the human body. Many immediately recall a vial with a brown liquid, which rather quickly absorbs into the skin. But doctors say that if iodine absorbed quickly, it is not enough.
Iodine performs many functions, including:
- Participation in the process of metabolism, as well as the direct regulation of its
- Regulation of growth, development of cells in the body
- Participates in the regulation of blood pressure, and also has an effect on heart rate
- Regulation of the human mental state, as well as normal functioning of the nervous system
- Actively involved in the formation of bone tissue.
- It has a significant impact on human mental abilities.
- Affects the body's resistance to various infections and bacteria
In addition to the above functions, iodine is actively involved in the process of fetal development during pregnancy. That is why the lack of an element may in the future affect mental abilities, as well as the overall health of the baby.
Iodine deficiency and excess
During pregnancy, not only iodine deficiency is dangerous, but also its oversupply, since in each of these cases everything will immediately affect the child. If you know exactly the symptoms of excess or lack of iodine, you can correct this and protect not only the mother, but also her future baby.
The main symptoms of iodine deficiency in the body of a pregnant woman include:
- Irritability that appears for no particular reason.
- Fast fatiguability. And since during pregnancy the body is under enormous pressure, this symptom can be overlooked.
- Dry skin
- Swelling of the hands or feet
While carrying a baby, most of these symptoms are present just like that. But, usually, they are characteristic of the first trimester.
The main symptoms of an excess of iodine in the body include:
- Weight loss, which is not typical for pregnant women
- Muscle weakness
- Appearance of gray hair
- The appearance of age spots
- Trembling fingers
- Weak immunity
If at least one of the above symptoms appears, you should immediately consult a doctor for advice.
Replenishing iodine deficiency
During pregnancy it is very important to maintain the content of all necessary elements at a normal level. To do this, you need to eat a variety of foods, since it is food that is the main source of replenishment of vitamins, trace elements and minerals.
Future mothers should pay close attention to their food and eat only those products that will be useful.
As for iodine, it is contained in certain foods that will need to be eaten. But this does not mean that apart from them, nothing can be eaten. On the contrary, for iodine to be properly absorbed, all other trace elements should also be at a good level.
Products containing iodine
Foods that contain iodine, mass, and therefore do not have to eat something that does not like.
The main products that contain this component include:
- Sea cabbage. In addition to iodine, there are many other necessary elements. Many kinds of dishes are prepared from seaweed, which are distinguished by their exquisite and unusual taste.
- Sea fish. Most often they acquire cod, flounder, salmon, which differ in excellent taste, and it is easy to cook them. It is best to eat fish boiled or steamed. With such cooking methods, more nutrients and vitamins are stored.
- Vegetables such as potatoes, beets, tomatoes, radishes, etc. Almost all vegetables that contain iodine are consumed by women, though not every day, but very often, especially in the summer months when there is no shortage of them.
- Berries such as raspberries, strawberries, mountain ash
- Fruits, such as bananas, apples, lemon, plums
- Dairy products such as milk, cottage cheese
The list of products can be continued indefinitely, since almost all contain a little iodine. But during pregnancy, it is necessary to use those that contain it most. True, you do not need to force yourself to eat cod if you don't like its taste. You can easily replace it with something else, because “in position” the food should be not only healthy, but also tasty, as the child reacts to all the emotions of the mother.
Leaders among products containing iodine
If a pregnant woman has an acute lack of iodine, the doctor will recommend that she only eat foods that contain the largest amount of this necessary component. To the joy of many women, all these products are quite edible and loved by many:
- Buckwheat. It is not only one of the leaders in iodine content, but also very tasty cereals, which are eaten by almost everything. From it you can make a delicious porridge and add fruit, and you can eat as a side dish to the meat dish
- Red caviar. It contains almost all important elements, and in an easily digestible form. And not an exception iodine. True, the cost of red caviar today is off the scale, and as the doctors say, you can't eat much either
- Sea Kale In order not to think much about how to eat and replenish the daily consumption of iodine, you can take 100 grams of seaweed. That will be quite enough. After all, it is in one hundred grams that the whole daily rate for an adult organism is contained. In the case of pregnant women, you can eat a little more, about 150 grams
- Cod liver. Even 30 years ago, cod liver was considered a delicacy. Today, it is fashionable to buy in any supermarket. In its pure form, few people have it, mostly added to salads
- Persimmon. This is another leader in iodine content. But only persimmon is not sold all year round, and it is not always taken to us in good condition. Therefore, to focus on the consumption of this product can only be in the winter and when it went en masse
As mentioned above, not only iodine deficiency is dangerous, but also its excess. That is why it is impossible to eat only the products listed above. Meals should be balanced. For this you need to eat everything and a little bit. Thanks to this scheme, the body will constantly receive the necessary nutrients, and the nutrition of a woman will become more useful and harmless.
The content of the article
It is not a secret to anyone that for the normal functioning of the human body and all its internal systems various useful elements are necessary. And their role is especially important when planning a pregnancy and carrying a baby during this entire period. Therefore, the doctors pay considerable attention to the nutrition of the patients in the situation, because the child in her womb will need a lot of resources for full development. Among the vital chemical trace elements is iodine during pregnancy (in the form of drugs or products with its content).
Why it is so important, and what the shortage / excess of iodine in the body of a pregnant woman can lead to, as well as which pharmaceutical products (Iodine-active and others) will help solve the problem, read on.
During prenatal development, the fetus needs a full-fledged complex of useful substances that would help to properly form all cells, tissues, systems and organs. And the main reason why it is necessary to take iodine in pregnancy in the optimal amount is a high risk of mental disorders of the child.
Does this microelement really matter?
Iodine is the main component of thyroid hormones. They, in turn, contribute to the correct setting of the brain of the child during pregnancy and, therefore, have a direct connection with the level of intelligence in the future.
In addition, iodine-containing hormones (thyroid) also perform another role in the human body:
- ensure the normal functioning of the nervous system,
- help to form the right immunity
- support normal metabolism and proteins, in particular,
- affect human reproductive abilities
- are directly involved in the "processing" of fats,
- stimulate differentiation, and then tissue growth.
And during gestation of the fetus, the thyroid gland begins to work in an enhanced mode, which provokes the production of more thyroid hormones. Consequently, for the normal formation of the systems and the laying of the baby’s organs during pregnancy, the body of the expectant mother is needed more than ever.
If the production of hormones by the thyroid gland is unstable, this will adversely affect the hormonal background and affect the metabolism in general:
- an excess of hormones causes tissue anabolism (their growth),
- the shortage may affect the insufficient development of the brain and, accordingly, the mental abilities of the person. In addition, the process of development and growth of the fetus in the womb can slow down.
If a surplus or insufficient amount of iodine in the body of a pregnant woman is observed over a long period of time, the health problems of the infant may be more significant. In some cases, a lack of iodine can lead to the development of cretinism.
However, before using products and preparations containing such a biological additive (Iodine-active, Iodomarin and others), you should consult with a specialist who can determine the needs of the female body during pregnancy.
In what quantities should a microelement be taken?
The human body needs iodine constantly. Therefore, doctors established the daily rate of use of the element, which, taking into account the division into age categories, is:
- adults - 150 mcg / day.,
- schoolchildren and teenagers (from 8 to 14 years old) - 120 mcg / day.,
- children from 2 years old and up to 8 years old - 90 mcg / day.,
- Newborn babies and children up to 2 years old - 40 mcg / day.
If we take into account the increased need for iodine in women during pregnancy, then for them the rate will be somewhat different - 200-250 mcg / day. This is the amount of trace element that should be consumed daily by patients in the position and lactating mothers. At the same time, the minimum amount of the supplement consumed is 150 µg / day. The same rule provides for women when planning pregnancy. It allows you to create an optimal environment for the emergence of a new life in the womb.
At the same time, regular consumption of iodine, the amount of which exceeds 550-1100 mcg / day, can have a negative impact not only on the health of the child, but also on the condition of the expectant mother herself. Therefore, you should always come to the reception to the endocrinologist, who will be able to give recommendations on what the overabundance (or shortage) of iodine will lead to and what the dosage of the element can be at different times.
Where does the microelement contain?
For many, the word "iodine" is associated with a solution that comes in small glass bottles and is sold as such in a pharmacy. And few people know that special preparations are currently being produced (for example, Iodine-active) containing this trace element as the main active ingredient. In nature, iodine is found in some foods that we meet in our kitchen almost every day.
For example, the following products are among the richest in iodine content:
- dairy products and dairy products (cottage cheese, cheese),
- seafood (fatty fish, seaweed),
- fish fat,
- vegetables (carrots, tomatoes, beets) and greens,
- fruits (apples and plums, cherries, grapes, etc.).
Also, a certain amount of iodine is contained in sea and iodized salt, which can be used as a food supplement, respectively, the recommendations of doctors. Thus, the body's need for iodine can be met by getting it from food. However, in this case, you need to be sure that the food has enough of the required trace element. The content of a biological element may vary depending on the conditions under which vegetables, fruits, etc. were grown. If the plants were grown in a soil rich in all the necessary minerals, and the animals fed on iodine-containing food, then the level of iodine would be sufficient. Otherwise, the lack of trace elements in products will lead to the fact that in the human body there will also be a shortage of them.
At the same time, there are products that stop the processes of iodine absorption in the body. They are not recommended to be used simultaneously with vegetables, fruits, seafood from the list above, as well as when iodine deficiency is detected.
As for the medical devices that are responsible for the delivery of iodine into the human body, that is, special drugs that are prescribed by doctors, taking into account the patient’s usual diet and the level of trace element deficiency in the body.
Among the most common iodine-containing drugs that endocrinologists recommend to take during pregnancy and when planning, can be identified Iodine-active - an organic pharmaceutical agent in the form of tablets. Iodine-active is used to prevent and treat disorders of the mental and physical development of children, as well as to eliminate other abnormalities in the thyroid gland. Therefore, Iodine-asset is often prescribed when planning pregnancy, pregnant patients and breastfeeding women.
In most cases, iodine-containing drugs are produced with the content of potassium-iodide as the main component (for example, iodomarin), but iodine-active differs from similar ones in that its formula is presented in the form of iodcasein (an organic compound of iodine in the milk protein molecule). It is thanks to this variant of the compound that it is safe to take iodine-an asset, because a key component can be released only if the protein molecule breaks down the liver enzyme produced under conditions of iodine deficiency. Manufacturers assure that when taking such a drug overdose is excluded. But nevertheless, before taking an Iodine-active, consultation of the endocrinologist will be required.
Is microelement good for everyone?
Every person and pregnant woman, in particular, should remember that any drugs and their dosage should be prescribed only by a doctor. Self-medication does not always benefit the health of patients. The profile specialist will be able, on the basis of analyzes, to determine whether there is a deficiency or an excess of certain trace elements in the body and whether the person needs a specific therapy. It is the same with iodine-containing drugs (iodine-active as well).
The fact is that each drug has its own contraindications. For example, it is not recommended to take iodine in the form of drugs or as part of products, if the following pathologies are diagnosed in a patient:
- abnormalities in the liver, kidneys,
- a high level of thyroid hormones produced by the thyroid gland,
- allergic reaction to a chemical element
- individual characteristics of the patient.
In addition, people can live in areas where the soil and plants grown on it are rich in iodine. Consequently, it is not necessary to additionally take a biological additive, so that its excess in the body does not occur.
It is worth noting that an overdose of iodine is no less dangerous than its lack. Especially in the early stages of fetal development in the womb and during pregnancy planning. In case of supersaturation with such a microelement, the thyroid gland can be disturbed, and in some cases it can be fatal. Therefore, you should definitely undergo an examination and get expert advice before taking any iodine-containing preparations and products, natural sources of the element.
Element number 53 is present in all living microorganisms. Its concentration in plants depends on the amount of the substance in the soil. Interestingly, some inhabitants of the sea accumulate up to 1% iodine, which makes them a valuable food source of this useful substance.
In humans, iodine is part of the thyroid hormones:
T4 is inactive in the body. By complex transformations from being transformed into T3, which provides the basic functions. Together, these hormones create the conditions for a normal metabolic process.
- Affect the growth and differentiation of cells.
- Regulate heat exchange.
- Provide normal oxidation of proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
An imbalance of thyroid hormones threatens serious problems, including when conceiving and carrying a child.
До 70 % всего поступающего йода находится в тканях щитовидной железы. Оставшийся йод равномерно распределяется в почках, печени, кишечнике , яичниках и коже.
Значение йода при беременности
В ожидании малыша организм женщины перестраивается. Changing hormones, and in particular, in the blood is determined by a new hormone - hCG. A high level of hCG leads to a regular decrease in TSH - a thyroid-stimulating hormone that affects the production of T3 and T4. Develops physiological hyperthyroidism - a condition in which there is an enhanced synthesis of thyroid hormones. Hyperthyroidism persists for up to 20 weeks, after which hormone levels gradually return to normal.
The active work of the thyroid gland leads to the fact that iodine, necessary for the full functioning of the body, no longer suffices. According to statistics, up to 80% of all future mothers are deficient in this element. At first, the missing iodine is taken from a woman's own reserves, which inevitably affects her health. Over time, resources are depleted, and the baby begins to suffer from iodine deficiency. The lack of such an important element threatens serious health problems and may cause an abortion.
Iodine rich foods
The maximum amount of iodine found in such products:
- sea kale,
- fish: hake, pollack, cod, haddock, perch, capelin, tuna, pink salmon, catfish, flounder, etc.,
- mozzarella cheese,
- the eggs.
The content of iodine in other products is much lower, but they should not be fully written off. The problem is that vegetables and fruits grown on lands poor in iodine are not able to fully accumulate this element. Ural, a large part of Siberia, some parts of the central part of the country, as well as the Moscow region - all lands located far from the sea belong to iodine deficient regions in Russia.
- Iodine from seaweed and fish is absorbed better than from drugs.
- Iodine quickly collapses during storage and heat treatment of products. Up to 50% of iodine is lost when cooking meat, 25% - when boiling milk. It is useless to add iodine to bakery products. In the baking process, iodine loss reaches 80%. After heat treatment of vegetables and fruits, up to 30% of the useful element is lost.
Food iodized salt is a kind of ordinary salt, but with the addition of a valuable trace element. The product is very popular among residents of iodine-deficient regions. The composition of this salt is potassium iodate - 20 mg per 1 kg, which ensures a daily intake of 150 μg iodine per person (based on the daily norm of salt). The product is allowed to be consumed at any stage of pregnancy and can be used as an additional source of iodine if seafood is not available.
- Over time, the salts of iodine are destroyed, and such a product loses its beneficial properties. Do not use iodized salt after its expiration date.
- Store iodized salt strictly in a dry place in a container under a tight lid. In a wet room, iodine salts quickly deteriorate.
Iodine deficiency during pregnancy
Lack of iodine in a woman’s body leads to disruption of the thyroid gland and the development of hypothyroidism. This pathology is one of the leading causes of infertility in young women. Insufficient production of hormones against iodine deficiency leads to an imbalance in the whole body. Ovarian function suffers, ovulation stops. In such circumstances, the conception of the child does not occur. After restoration of thyroid function, successful planning and gestation of pregnancy is possible.
During gestation, iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism can lead to the development of such complications:
- Spontaneous miscarriage. In the first trimester, the baby lives due to maternal thyroid hormones. With their lack of development of the embryo is inhibited, and the baby dies.
- Congenital hypothyroidism. The lack of iodine and thyroid hormones in the early stages threatens with the development of hypothyroidism, which is practically not amenable to treatment. The disease leads to mental retardation and other serious health problems.
- Preterm delivery due to an imbalance of hormones.
- Severe toxicosis in the first trimester.
- High probability of preeclampsia.
- Bleeding at any stage of pregnancy and childbirth.
- Anemia in the second half of gestation.
It is also known that hypothyroidism significantly increases the likelihood of fetal chromosomal abnormalities.
Recognize the lack of iodine can be on the following symptoms:
- severe weakness
- memory loss
- dry skin
- lowering blood pressure and reducing heart rate,
- inhibition of libido.
All these symptoms are not specific and are sometimes taken by a woman as a normal state during pregnancy. It is possible to recognize hypothyroidism, which arose against a background of iodine deficiency, only after a blood test for hormones.
Excess iodine during pregnancy
This condition may be associated with hyperthyroidism - a pathology of the thyroid gland, which increases the synthesis of hormones. Excess iodine is also found with overdose of medications and vitamins.
Signs of excess iodine:
- increased arousal
- increased heart rate
- high blood pressure
If you suspect an overdose of iodine drugs should consult a doctor as soon as possible. Too high a dose of iodine in the body can be fatal.
The daily need for iodine during pregnancy increases and is 200-250 mg. Since all expectant mothers have a deficiency of this element, doctors strongly recommend taking iodine-containing drugs prophylactically. Ideally, you should start taking iodine before conceiving a child. If the pregnancy was unplanned, you need to start taking medications immediately after confirming the diagnosis.
Iodine is an element that is part of many vitamins for expectant mothers:
- "Materna" - 150 mg,
- “Mother Complivit” - 150 mg,
- "Pregnavit" - 200 mg,
- Vitrum Prenatal Forte - 150 mg.
If a woman takes vitamins with an iodine content of 150 mg, she needs to additionally drink iodine preparations of 50-100 mg per day.
As part of some multivitamins ("Elevit" and others) iodine is not declared. In this case, the woman should additionally take iodine-containing drugs at 200-250 mg per day.
The list of drugs approved for use during pregnancy:
The drugs are available in tablets of 100 and 200 g. If a woman does not take iodine-containing vitamins, she should drink 200-250 mg of the drug once a day. In other situations, the dosage is calculated based on the iodine content in a particular multivitamin complex.
Intake of iodine drugs continues throughout pregnancy. Nursing mothers are advised to take iodine-containing drugs at 200-300 mg per day until completion of breastfeeding.
Iodine preparations are approved for use during pregnancy at any time, but the consultation of the doctor will not hurt. This is especially true for women with any pathology of the thyroid gland. In this case, the use of any funds containing iodine is possible only after consulting with an endocrinologist.
Iodine during pregnancy
Iodine is a very important component for humans.
- It ensures the functioning of the thyroid gland, which produces hormones T3 and T4, affecting the activity of the circulatory, nervous system, involved in metabolic processes,
- Without sufficient reserves of iodine, it will be very difficult for you to safely carry out and produce a healthy baby,
- Ideally, even at the planning stage of pregnancy, it is important to carefully prepare for conception, saturating the body with essential substances,
- A sufficient iodine intake at the gestational stage will help your baby to fully form, and you will be saved from further problems with the thyroid gland,
- This microelement will allow you to keep mental and physical activity, save you from depression, excess weight, maintain a good mood for all 9 months,
- You can use a unique microelement with food, also use as a medicine in the form of gargling with iodine during pregnancy of the oral cavity during seasonal respiratory diseases, following the instructions recommended by your doctor.
Signs of iodine deficiency
In the Russian latitudes the issue of micronutrient deficiency is one of the painful ones. Statistics found that the Russian people receive 2 - 3 times less component than they need, about 40 - 80 micrograms per day. The most important signs of iodine deficiency are:
- reduced immunity
- excessive tiredness
- general weakness of the body.
Iodine deficiency is sadly reflected in the physical and mental development of the fetus. Especially important is the sufficient volume of the trace element at an early stage of pregnancy, when the main systems and organs are formed.
- The leading role this compound plays when laying and maturation of the brain, as well as components of the nervous system,
- Iodine deficiency during pregnancy can provoke dementia in a child, as well as other developmental anomalies,
- The component has an impact on the formation of the baby’s skeleton: it promotes the formation of cartilage in the bone, helps to make reserves of calcium, phosphorus.
To learn how a baby should develop normally during pregnancy, read the article Developing a child in the womb >>>.
If your body is deficient in trace elements, then this will adversely affect the course of pregnancy and childbirth. The following unpleasant complications are possible:
- early toxicosis (about the symptoms you can learn from the article Nausea during pregnancy >>>),
- threatened miscarriage
- fading pregnancy
- giving birth ahead of time
- chronic fetal hypoxia,
- discoordination of the birth process.
With a lack of iodine, you are likely to feel physical and mental fatigue, manifestations of puffiness, overweight, deterioration in the quality of nails, hair, and skin. During breastfeeding, milk production may be reduced and even a complete cessation of lactation.
It happens that it is not so easy to visually identify signs of a micronutrient deficiency. Thyroid problems may be hidden. Given this fact, go ahead with an ultrasound scan and donate blood for hormones in order to start prevention in time.
Dosage during pregnancy
Iodine we get from water and food. A simple person somehow manages his modest reserves from these sources. During pregnancy, your body works hard for two and the need for an element increases dramatically.
Know At the planning stage, it is quite enough for you to receive 100-150 micrograms per day. Once conception has occurred, the dosage of iodine should be 200-250 mcg per day. If we consider that you get about 40 micrograms with water and food, then the missing part is usually prescribed by the doctor in the form of drugs.
Iodine in food
In the main products of the daily diet of iodine there is very little. The richest category of seafood. Of these, the compound is absorbed most fully and lasts longer in the body. Examine the list of gifts of nature with the amount of micrograms of iodine per 100 grams and actively include them in your diet:
- cod liver - 370,
- feijoa - 350,
- squid - 300,
- sea kale - 300 (read the article on the topic: Sea kale during pregnancy >>>)
- haddock - 245,
- salmon - 200,
- shrimp - 190 (actual article: Shrimps during pregnancy >>>),
- flounder - 190,
- Pollock - 150,
- mackerel - 145,
- sea bass - 145,
- cod - 130,
- herring - 70 - 90,
- oysters - 60.
During pregnancy, try to choose special foods and water enriched with iodine (by the way, read the useful article Mineral Water in Pregnancy >>>).
Salt is available for sale with this trace element, but keep in mind that the product should be used with great care. Especially with increased pressure and a tendency to swelling, as the salt retains fluid in the body.
In addition, iodine is destroyed by contact with light and air, and therefore, the shelf life of such salt is not more than 6 months.
Important! Remember that products such as: thyme, swede, turnip, red, cauliflower, mustard, soybean prevent the body from assimilating an element.
Treatment with iodine during pregnancy
To gargle with iodine during pregnancy is not the most popular method of dealing with tonsillitis, but one of them.
- Carry out this procedure very carefully, it is better after consulting with your doctor,
- The solution is prepared in a glass of warm water with two teaspoons of salt, one - soda, a couple of drops of iodine,
- To use this drug can be no more than 5 days, as it dries the mucous.
A safer method for treating a sore throat is considered to be the iodine net during pregnancy, which is applied to the neck no more than once a week in the evening, in the absence of visible skin lesions and allergic reactions.
Signs of excess and contraindications for iodine in pregnancy
Is iodine possible for everybody during pregnancy or are there any restrictions? Be aware that an overabundance of this element is more dangerous than its disadvantage. This situation may contribute to the development of thyrotoxicosis. Signs of excess trace element are:
- puffiness of the face, urticaria, acne,
- allergic manifestations,
- brown bloom on the tongue
- digestive disorders,
- high heartbeat,
- copious saliva.
Contraindications for prescribing iodine are diseases of the thyroid gland with increased hormone production, serious malfunctions of the liver, kidneys, and personal intolerance.