How to organize training for deaf and hearing impaired children?
If a person does not hear or hears weakly, then life becomes harder, especially for a child. Children need to hear, recognize the sounds of nature and colloquial speech. Children's ENT doctor will help to cope with a similar problem. He may prescribe a course of medication or prescribe another treatment. It is possible that the doctor will recommend special hearing aids for children. Without hearing the child will not be able to fully develop.
It should be noted that the majority of deaf and hearing impaired children are born to parents who do not have such problems. For these families, the appearance of such a child can be a big surprise.
The speech of hearing impaired children depends on many factors:
- From the degree of hearing loss. That is, the worse he hears, the worse he says.
- From the period of occurrence of the defect. If the loss of hearing has occurred after three years, then the baby may be developed phrasal speech, but with some minor deviations in the grammatical structure, pronunciation. If the problem has arisen at school age, then errors usually occur in the slurred pronunciation of unstressed syllables, in stunning loud consonant letters, etc.
- From the conditions in which the baby developed.
- From the mental and physical condition of the child.
The grammatical structure of speech in hearing impaired children is not formed to the necessary extent.
What is meant by "features of learning" in children with similar problems?
A good solution for such a child would be a school for hearing impaired children. The loss of this ability has critical implications for the development of cognitive (thinking) and linguistic (language) skills in children. The occurrence of other disorders in combination with hearing loss require additional features in the training. Hearing impaired and deaf children often have significant difficulties in learning, so you need to select a special approach to the learning process. The prevalence of other disabilities in addition to hearing loss is about three times more (30.2%) among deaf or hard of hearing people.
Causes of hearing loss in children
Why do children have hearing loss? As the children's ENT doctors say, to such a deviation can lead to:
- maternal rubella (2%),
- prematurity (5%),
- cytomegalovirus (1%),
- meningitis (9%).
It is logical to assume that people with hearing problems are at high risk of additional disorders. Since, as is known, the previously mentioned etiologies are also associated with neurological problems.
Most often, deaf or hearing impaired children register the following types of disability: mental impairment and emotional / behavioral disorders. The prevalence of mental disorders caused by hearing loss is almost 8%. Concomitant emotional / behavioral disability was the least - 4% of cases. Students with associated emotional / behavioral disorders are characterized by inappropriate, destructive, aggressive behavior that interferes with the learning process.
Pupils with hearing loss and mental impairment are characterized by a general developmental delay in all areas. They also have limited ability to solve problems, reduced adaptive or functional skills. Children who have a disability due to hearing loss tend to have an average or above average level of intelligence. They demonstrate skills and abilities in different ways, revealing certain learning deficiencies that limit their achievements. They are characterized by atypical behavior. These students do not make progress in academic terms, compared with the documented parameters of conceptual learning, which are found among deaf or hearing impaired students.
How to identify additional problems with the training of special kids?
Identifying additional learning problems in hearing-impaired children is a complex and difficult task. Part of the difficulty arises from the fact that hearing loss in itself creates learning problems, which usually lead to delays in understanding the language and, consequently, to a delay in academic skills. Thus, identifying any other factors can be a complex problem. Rational assessment methods using interdisciplinary teams are important in identifying additional deficiencies in deaf or hearing impaired children. This is especially true when you consider that the characteristics shown by students with associated disorders are often the same.
Who should work with children?
The constant lack of language learning, mental or emotional deficiencies, bad behavior, difficulty in coordinating attention and poor digestibility of the material - this all applies to children with hearing impairments. Such specialists are usually attracted to work with such children: school psychologists, physiotherapists, audiologists, and the necessary medical personnel (nurses, psychiatrists, etc.). The team of specialists should provide a thorough interpretation of the results according to the recommendations and suggestions for the educational program.
What questions should be asked when deciding whether to send a child to assess the level of knowledge?
Is the student deaf or hard of hearing and is hearing loss progressing? This should be the first question when considering an assessment for a student with similar problems. The researchers described the parameters of language learning and academic progress, usually observed in deaf or hearing impaired people. Given the possibilities of learning through appropriate and effective ways of communication, learning with this pathology should progress in the expected growth patterns and achievements. If this does not happen, you should ask questions about the reasons.
The loss of this ability brings with it many problems that affect the learning of hearing impaired children. However, deafness itself is not always accompanied by the following problems:
- attention deficit
- perceptual-motor difficulties
- inability to replenish vocabulary,
- persistent memory problems or consistent distraction behavior or emotional factors.
If any of these behaviors characterize a student who is deaf or hard of hearing, it is necessary to find out the possible causes of these problems.
What are the general strategies used to help hearing impaired children?
It is very difficult to define general strategies for such students. This is primarily because each individual learning profile will differ, depending on the number and nature of the various influencing factors. After some time spent searching for “rectification” strategies, professionals are convinced that all students with hearing loss must have individualized approaches. It is really difficult for specialists in this field to compare the assessment training profile with the corresponding educational strategies for solving the identified problems. In general, some strategies may be helpful.
Let's consider them:
- Strategies for children with additional learning problems, which include a serious lack of vocabulary and simple knowledge of syntax. This also includes working with images and graphics to support speech will be useful.
- Teaching deaf children is more often associated with sound processing or understanding. Students with disabilities will benefit from the many oral rehabilitation methods used to improve their listening skills. Behaviors that include well-defined options will be effective. Satisfying emotional factors through educational programs and individual or group counseling, when necessary, will also be effective.
What are hearing impairments?
Hearing loss can occur at different ages for various reasons.
Total deafness comes in case most of the hearing organs are affected.
Hearing loss Pathologies are called if the hearing organs are only partially affected. Such babies are called hearing impaired.
Deaf and dumb They call children who have already been born unheard or have lost their hearing before they learned to speak.
Even if the baby already knew how to speak, gradually he begins to lose speech skills and may also become deaf and dumb. In this case, the parents need to make maximum efforts, and organize the child's life so that this does not happen. It is very important for the baby to remain "talking", it will greatly facilitate his communication with hearing people and help the formation of auditory speech perception.
What is necessary to train the baby?
In order for deaf and hearing impaired children to live a full life, it is important to teach them skills such as:
- oral speech,
- auditory perception.
In addition, the baby must be taught to be independent and to find a common language with hearing people, so that he can communicate and carry out all the necessary actions without assistance. But it is necessary to organize classes, given the characteristics of the child.
Development of oral speech special gaming techniques will help, which should be taken very seriously, the only way to get results. A variety of toys (dolls, cars, animals, cubes, etc.) are needed. If a child is interested in any toy, it should be brought to his lips to attract the baby’s attention to articulation, and clearly name the toy as a simple combination of sounds (la-la or bi-bi). Daily repetition of this situation will lead to the fact that the crumb himself will be able to pronounce this word by syllables. The first step is the most difficult, then the child will begin to speak other words. At first, pronunciation will not be clear, approximate, but the main thing is that the baby began to designate objects with the help of oral speech. Then you can study the names of the verbs (runs, walks, eats), repeating them when the child gets into these situations.
Reading hearing impaired children are taught using printed word plates. Because of the peculiarities of perception, children are not taught to pronounce individual letters and syllables, but to memorize the entire word. It is important to pay attention to the fact that the child understands the meaning of words, and not just repeat the sounds correctly.
Letter should be taught along with reading. Give your child complete freedom of choice - bright felt-tip pens or pencils, free arrangement of letters on the album list. Without hearing the pronunciation, learning to read is very difficult, writing is even more difficult, so you do not need to force the child by force, but on the contrary, you should try to make every interest possible. Gradually, the writing of letters will become more accurate and orderly.
The development of hearing It is very important for children who wear hearing aids. By itself, the device does not give the desired effect, the baby should be able to perceive the surrounding sounds, not the total mass, but highlight the necessary ones. So gradually he will learn to understand oral speech.
What are the teaching methods?
Problems with hearing in children, unfortunately, are not very rare. Therefore, there are many special teaching methods for such children, which take into account the peculiarities of their development and perception. The basic principles of these techniques:
- comprehensive development of the child based on the correction of existing problems,
- an earlier start of education than in healthy children (learning may take longer, and at an earlier age the baby will learn the necessary skills more easily),
- creation of "speech environment".
Method of kindergartens of compensating type based on the fact that the child is in the system of a special educational process. Teachers create conditions for compensating the development of deaf and hearing-impaired children. Children from 1.5-2 years old are accepted for training. The term of study is usually 4-5 years. The disadvantage of such gardens is the residential type of institution. Acquiring the necessary skills, the kid breaks away from his family in the most important years of his development.
Method E.I. Leonhard designed for raising children with hearing impairment in the family. Children undergoing training according to this method go to regular kindergartens or special groups, attend individual classes with a deaf-and-dumb pedagogue who owns this method. But the main role in the education and upbringing of the child is played by the parents. The deaf-and-dumb pedagogue only consults the parents, guides them.
Bilingual technique - a modern system based on the recognition of the rights of a deaf person, including the choice of his lifestyle, way of communication, the realization of himself as a self-sufficient person. The basis of this technique is that the use of a sign language is equal in status to the use of a national verbal language and is fully used in the learning process.
When educating a deaf or hearing impaired child, parents need to remember that the child must also learn social skills. Creating a friendly environment in which the baby can play with peers is sometimes much more important than many hours of classes. Naturally, the child is aware that he is different from the rest, while he must learn not to feel inferior or impaired.