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Progesterone during pregnancy


Berezovskaya E.P.
Obstetrician-gynecologist. Toronto, Canada.


If almost all countries of the world very quickly figured out what progesterone is and “what it is eaten with,” when it is useful and when it is useless, then in the countries of the former Soviet Union, at least one generation is “grown” on progesterone “ swallow ”the same progesterone, nurture your generation. In other words, progesterone has become a chewing gum, without which our woman is afraid to start planning a pregnancy, and even more so carrying a pregnancy. The world has not yet seen such an epidemic of universal obsession with the hormonal drug, and many foreign doctors are not only surprised, but also shocked by the fact that progesterone drugs are used in large numbers by our women. And one could take offense at foreign colleagues and proudly declare that they do not understand anything in medicine, that there they, Europe and America, women are arranged differently and they don’t lose their pregnancy, that they don’t care about women at all, if not The following important facts: hormonal contraceptives, which include synthetic progesterone substitutes, were invented by non-Soviet doctors many years ago, and therefore non-Soviet doctors studied the properties and effects of many synthetic forms of sex hormones, including progesterone. This means that we need to study and analyze already that huge accumulated material in developed countries about hormonal preparations, and not to reinvent the square wheel.

When hormones and hormonal contraception were only started to be spoken on the territory of Russia, Ukraine and other Soviet republics in the late 90s (according to WHO data, in 1998 in Eastern European countries less than 0.3% of the female population used hormonal contraceptives, and Bulgaria was the leader thanks to which this percentage “showed up” against the background of the remaining data), in Europe and America, 20–30% of the female childbearing population used contraceptives. After going through various forms of synthetic progesterone (progestins), examining their effects on the female body, analyzing the possibility of their use during pregnancy, foreign doctors had a clear picture of progesterone many years ago. The use of progesterone by our women has reached not just the apogee, but cosmic levels in comparison with other countries, even with the most advanced or most backward health care. Why is this? From ignorance, from unwillingness to learn from others, from blindly following instructions and directives that have not been tested and disproved by anyone, from reinsurance, from passion for fashion (everyone does).


In the 70s, synthetic progesterone was widely used in the United States in the first trimester of pregnancy. In the 80s and 90s, Soviet women began to “get involved” with the Turinal, produced in Hungary. And suddenly there was evidence that synthetic progesterone can cause the appearance of small (small) malformations in the fetus, especially the genitals of girls and boys. The US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has banned the use of progesterone in pregnant women in the first trimester, and in the instructions for use of the drug appeared the statement "taking progesterone is contraindicated in pregnancy for up to 4 months, since it can cause small fetal malformations" and went on A detailed description of all types of defects that have been reported in cases where women used progesterone in the first trimester.

European doctors also did not stand aside, and conducted a study on the safety of Turinal and similar drugs. Turinal is more potent than human progesterone. In some countries, Turinal is no longer recommended for use in pregnant women, and even banned the sale. Hungarian doctors tried to "defend" their domestic drug, proving in their clinical studies that this synthetic hormonal drug is very safe.

The further the medical industry related to reproductive technologies developed, the clearer it became why spontaneous miscarriages occur, and what is the role of progesterone in maintaining pregnancy. And, as I have already mentioned, a defective fertilized egg cannot be implanted correctly, therefore the level of hCG does not grow as it does in a normal pregnancy, and the corpus luteum of pregnancy does not support such a pregnancy by producing enough progesterone - it is interrupted. And how much do not enter progesterone, will not help. We tried to introduce HCG with a progestron, but the results were the same - it does not help. Why? A fetal egg is already defective since its inception, so from the point of view of nature, normal offspring from it will not work. But our doctors think about it least of all or know it, and therefore they prescribe hormones to all women “just in case”.

Reproductive medicine helped resolve two other issues - the treatment of repeated spontaneous miscarriages and the successful IVF (artificial insemination) due to the additional administration of progesterone. In a number of women, repeated spontaneous miscarriages are associated with insufficiency of the progesterone (lutein) phase. And the matter is not a full-fledged egg cell, but bad preparation of the uterus for the adoption of the ovum. Usually, the deficiency of the luteal phase is related to the insufficiency and the first phase of the menstrual cycle (estrogen), but if an egg cell has matured, even if it is late, then this is already good. Therefore, the second phase becomes more important for the implantation process.


There are not so many women suffering from the luteal phase deficiency, it is just the doctors of the post-Soviet states who abuse this diagnosis. First, the diagnosis is wrong. Secondly, the wrong treatment is prescribed. Doctors make a diagnosis on one result of the analysis, which determines the level of progesterone on the 21st day of the cycle, when the peak of progesterone production should be observed. But the peak is observed not on the 21st day of the cycle, but on the 7th day after the maturation of the egg, and in women with monthly cycles longer than 28 days (up to 35-40 days is considered normal), of course, ovulation will not occur in the middle of the cycle, but later, this means that the peak level of progesterone will also shift and will not be observed on days 21-22 of the cycle. For correct diagnosis, it is necessary to determine the level of progesterone at least 3-4 times during one cycle, and build a graph of its level curve. And such a survey should be for three monthly cycles, no less. Moreover, foreign doctors do not diagnose the luteal phase insufficiency, especially if the woman did not have spontaneous miscarriages, without examining the inner lining of the uterus in the second half of the cycle on certain days when the endometrium is taken and its structure is examined under a microscope. Treatment in such cases is prescribed not from the 16th day of the menstrual cycle, but after diagnosed ovulation, which may be later. Often, treatment consists of a combination of sex hormones, rather than a single progesterone or its synthetic substitute. Progesterone inhibits the maturation of the eggs, so its wrong and untimely appointment can exacerbate problems in women. The duration of the drug is also not 5 days, but until it is confirmed that the woman is pregnant or not (before the onset of menstruation). Because if the pregnancy comes, abrupt cancellation of progesterone on the 25th or another day of the cycle, when the implantation process began, can provoke a miscarriage.

Women who undergo embryo grafting do not have their own yellow body, so there is no organ that will produce progesterone in sufficient quantity until the placenta assumes this role. It turns out that if, after IVF, the pregnancy is not supported by additional administration of progesterone, embryo transfer will not be successful in most cases. Here, without this hormone can not do.

And what happens in a healthy woman? If a woman has normal regular cycles and she becomes pregnant spontaneously within a year without the intervention of doctors, this is a normal, healthy conception of a child. So, hormone levels in such a woman are in order. Why should she prescribe additional hormonal drugs? For what? It is unlikely that such a woman may have a luteal phase deficiency. If the fertilized egg is full, the pregnancy will progress, so you do not need to enter progesterone. If it is defective, the pregnancy will be interrupted, and there is nothing wrong with that. And the appointment of progesterone will not change the situation.


Scientists from different countries of the world have done a lot of research on the issues of “preserving” therapy in early pregnancy, and unanimously declare that there is no such therapy. Such therapy does not exist even for other terms of pregnancy, which we will discuss later. It turns out that all those drugs that at least once tried to use for the preservation or continuation of pregnancy are not effective. And then what is effective? Oddly enough, the psychological factor, the belief of a woman in a positive outcome, often acts better than any medication. For most women, progesterone is just a pacifier, a sedative pill, without which she has no faith in the positive outcome of pregnancy. And doctors, friends, and acquaintances have taught the woman to this. And she will accustom her daughters to this.

Passion for progesterone is also associated with extensive advertising of "natural" types of progesterone, and since this is a natural product, it means it can be used in packages. What does a woman called “natural” progesterone actually get?
"Natural" progesterone is obtained from a number of plants, most often yams. However, yam contains a substance called diosgenin, which does not possess hormonal activity, but from which it is possible to synthesize a number of hormones, including progesterone. Thus, progesterone, which is sold in pharmacies called “natural,” is synthetically derived progesterone from diosgenin. Unlike "synthetic" progesterone, which has several forms and all are called progestins, "natural" progesterone is identical in structure to human progesterone.

When buying “natural” progesterone, it is always important to know whether the drug contains diosgenin (pure yams extract) or micro-ionized progesterone derived from diosgenin. The fact is that the first in the human body does not turn into progesterone, because it is very poorly absorbed in the intestine, and even worse through the mucous membranes and skin, and that portion that enters the bloodstream, undergoes changes in the liver (metabolized) in a number of substances but not in progesterone. Progesterone itself, in its pure form, is also very poorly absorbed, so modern progesterone drugs have a certain form - micro-ionized, and in addition, progesterone must be in combination with fats, otherwise it will not be absorbed. The composition of many drugs include vegetable fats, most often peanut or coconut oil. People who are allergic to peanuts, can not take this kind of "natural" progesterone.
The word "natural" in relation to the sex hormone has led to a false understanding of its harmlessness. However, being a steroid hormone in structure, progesterone can act and connect not only with progesterone receptors, but also receptors for other hormones that are similar in structure to progesterone. Therefore, progesterone can block these receptors, which means that it has anti-estrogenic, anti-androgenic and anti-mineralocorticoid effects. In other words, it can block the absorption of other important hormones produced by the ovaries and adrenal glands.


Fortunately, those doses that are prescribed to many pregnant women are so low that they do not have a therapeutic effect, but act as a placebo. And it would seem that in this bad? If modern forms of progesterone are not so dangerous, then why not assign it to everyone? The problem is that the appointment of such a “harmless” drug creates (already created by millions of women) dependence of a woman, often still preparing to become a mother, and even more so a pregnant woman, from all sorts of pills, injections, droppers, candles and other things - artificially the created fear that a pregnancy will not progress without a medicine and will end in its interruption. Thus, taking pills in most women becomes an indispensable attribute of their life, and even more so when all their friends, colleagues, relatives, acquaintances hatched a pregnancy with “progesterone.”

Clinical studies in many countries have shown that the administration of progesterone does not improve the outcome of pregnancy, except in cases of repeated spontaneous miscarriages due to the insufficiency of the progesterone (luteal) phase and after artificial insemination with embryo transfer, when a woman does not have a yellow body. For a long time, the effect of progesterone on the prevention of preterm birth in women at risk for preterm labor and with a short cervix was studied, and progesterone was prescribed to such women after 24-26 weeks of pregnancy. The first results were encouraging, but recent studies have shown that in this group of women the additional purpose of this hormone does not improve the outcome. Therefore, foreign doctors in some confusion: to appoint progesterone after 24 weeks to some women, or still not to prescribe? Most do not appoint.
Thus, during normal conception and normal pregnancy, the female body will produce the required amount of progesterone until the placenta takes over this function completely, and the additional purpose of progesterone “just in case” does not justify itself.

What else is prescribed to a pregnant woman for the purpose of reinsurance? Noshpa, viburkol, magnesium sulfate (magnesia) and a number of other drugs are introduced into the body of a pregnant woman at times in large doses, although these drugs do not preserve the pregnancy and do not improve its outcome.
I would like to say a few words about magnesia. The use of this drug is not only not effective in early pregnancy, but also dangerous to the health of the woman. The fact is that the muscles of the uterus in the early stages are not sensitive to this drug, just as they are not sensitive in the late periods at rest. Only when the contraction-like contractions begin in the third trimester of pregnancy can the muscles of the uterus be sensitive to magnesium sulfate and react with temporary relaxation, but not always and not at all. This drug is used in modern obstetrics to prevent and relieve seizures, and partly to reduce high blood pressure during serious pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It has many side effects, and because of this magnesium sulfate is used under the strict control of the electrolyte (salt) exchange of a pregnant woman.

You must understand that modern medicine does not have a treatment for threatening abortion, and all the drugs that doctors have tried or tried to use are not effective. Supportive hormone therapy (and no other) helps the implantation of the ovum in cases where there is a diagnostically diagnosed hormone disorder or hormone deficiency (as when embryos are transplanted). A normal and normal pregnancy does not require any intervention by the doctor in the form of prescribing multiple treatment regimens, because they not only do not help, but can harm and trigger an abortion.

Pregnancy Progesterone Norm: Why is this hormone so important in the early stages? Table of Normal Progesterone Level Values

A woman's menstrual cycle is clearly divided into two phases, each of which is dominated by its own hormone. After ovulation, the corpus luteum is formed, which synthesizes progesterone.

Preparation of the endometrium for implantation of a fertilized egg and the further progression of pregnancy depend on the activity of this temporary gland.

Any deviation in concentration can lead to unpleasant consequences.

  • The role of progesterone in pregnancy
  • Blood test: when prescribing and preparation for blood donation for progesterone
  • Progesterone level by week of pregnancy and trimester in the table
  • Norm 17-OH progesterone during pregnancy
  • Low progesterone levels: causes and risks for pregnancy
  • Excess progesterone in the pregnant woman: causes and effects
  • Hormone levels during pregnancy with twins
  • Lack of progesterone and treatment during pregnancy
  • How to increase progesterone levels with food

Progesterone during pregnancy: its role in the pregnant woman's body in the early stages

Progesterone is called the hormone of pregnancy. Its influence is manifested in the following:

  • Preparation of the endometrium for attachment of a fertilized egg. Слизистая матки утолщается, запасается питательными веществами.
  • Усиление секреции питательной слизи в фаллопиевых трубах, которая необходима для поддержания жизнедеятельности делящейся бластоцисты, и для ее транспорта из трубы в полость матки.
  • Увеличение размеров матки за счет разрастания стромальных и мышечных клеток,
  • Reduction of the contractile activity of the myometrium - the muscular layer of the uterus. In early pregnancy, this feature of progesterone prevents the rejection of a newly attached and implanted embryo.
  • Prepares the mammary glands for the secretion of milk. Under its action, the lobules increase and the cells of the alveoli grow, dairy passages from the lobules are improved for the outflow of milk after delivery.
  • Increases the elasticity of the pelvic floor muscles, ligaments of the pelvic bones. This is the first stage of adaptation of the organism to future genera.
  • Reduces immunity to prevent rejection of the ovum. After all, the embryo for the maternal organism is an alien object.
  • Detains fluid that is needed to increase blood volume.
  • Affects the nervous system, helps to form the dominant of pregnancy, but can lead to mood swings, reduce memory during pregnancy.

How does fertilization of the egg

Until the formation of the placenta, the main source of the hormone progesterone is the corpus luteum. Its activity is influenced by the emerging embryo.

From the first days after fertilization, its cells secrete human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). This hormone stimulates the corpus luteum and supports its functioning.

With a simultaneous increase in hCG, an increase in progesterone concentration occurs, which doubles weekly.

Analysis of progesterone during pregnancy

In clinical practice, an analysis of progesterone is prescribed for suspected pathology. With a normal pregnancy, it is not necessary.

Depending on the laboratory, different methods of analysis are used, so the measurement values ​​are different, we collected them into one pivot table.

17-OH progesterone during pregnancy

The active metabolite of progesterone 17-OH progesterone is also present in the blood. It is produced by the adrenal glands. Its concentration is insignificant in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle and increases in luteal. In pregnant women, an increase in its concentration to 2–12 nmol / l or 0.66–4.0 ng / ml is also noted. Indicators of this analysis reflect the normal functioning of the adrenal glands.

Low progesterone during early pregnancy

Reduced hormone levels threaten miscarriages. This may be accompanied by bleeding, pulling pain in the lower abdomen. The cause of low progesterone in early pregnancy may be in the failure of the corpus luteum. This may be due to the peculiarities of its functioning against the background of chronic inflammation of the appendages.

Sometimes, against the background of complete well-being, a sharp decrease in progesterone occurs. This can be observed in the following conditions:

When there are suspicions of these conditions - the doctor orders a pregnant woman to take a test for progesterone.

A decrease in progesterone is also observed in ectopic pregnancy. In this case, initially the level of progesterone and hCG will increase, but then it will stop.

Elevated progesterone during pregnancy

Increased hormone concentration also does not carry anything good. This can be observed in the following cases:

  • yellow body cyst
  • dysfunction of the placenta,
  • pathology of the kidneys, which worsens the excretion of the hormone,
  • adrenal gland diseases
  • taking certain medications.

Consequences of high progesterone can be fetal abnormality or abortion.

Progesterone in multiple pregnancies

In case of multiple pregnancies, doubling of the hormone concentration is not observed, up to 10 weeks of gestation it corresponds to the same level as that of one fetus. Later, with a functioning placenta twins, the concentration may be higher, but in some women it remains within the normal range for single-pregnancy. Therefore, the analysis of progesterone loses practical value.

Injection

Progesterone injections are used as an oily solution. It is administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly. The dosage depends on the individual characteristics, and ranges from 10 to 25 mg. Injections are carried out daily until the disappearance of signs of threatened abortion. Women with habitual miscarriage and the drug must be used before the 20th week of pregnancy.

The analogue is oxyprogesterone capronate. It is available in a dosage of 0.125 g in an ampoule. For the injection is assigned a dose of 1 or 2 ampoules. The drug is used for threatening miscarriage in the early period. It is administered once a week.

For the treatment of progesterone deficiency, vaginal forms of progesterone can be used. It may be capsules Utrozhestan Susten.

Utrozhestan with the threat of termination of pregnancy is prescribed according to a certain scheme. Initially, it is 400-600 mg per dose. Then 200-300 mg is used twice a day, daily until the signs of a threat disappear. If the dose is insufficient, then it can be increased to 800-1000 mg.

The abolition of the drug occurs gradually, as well as in the physiology of normal pregnancy. For this weekly dose is reduced by 100 mg.

But if the symptoms of threatening miscarriage reappear in the form of hemorrhage, pulling pain in the lower abdomen, you will have to return to treatment. Otherwise, a threatened miscarriage will turn into an abortion.

Therefore, abrupt cancellation of the drug, which can trigger an abortion, is unacceptable.

Analogue of Utrozhestan is Duphaston. It comes in pill form for oral administration. Unlike Utrozhestan, he does not have a sedative effect, so some doctors prefer to prescribe Duphaston.

The use of drugs in the form of candles or tablets is currently preferable to injections. Injection of oil solutions are very painful and require special skills. At that time, a woman can use candles by herself.

Natural progesterone boosting

With a deficiency of the corpus luteum, it is not possible to significantly increase the level of progesterone with the help of a diet. Changing the diet can be used as an additional method.

It is recommended to increase the amount of vitamin E and group B in the diet. The first is contained in vegetable oils, nuts, seeds.

B vitamins are found in large quantities in animal products:

  • meat, liver,
  • dairy products, cheeses,
  • eggs.

They are also found in cereals, vegetables and fruits.

Traditional healers offer a variety of recipes decoctions, infusions, which should help raise progesterone and maintain pregnancy. But the use of herbal medicine has no evidence base.

Can pregnant women drink herbal tea

In the event of a threatened miscarriage, ignoring adequate medical care and blind faith in popular treatment can lead to irreparable loss. Therefore, before self-treatment, you should consult with your doctor.

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Progesterone during pregnancy, the effects of deficiency

Progesterone is a steroid hormone produced mainly in the female body. It is synthesized in the yellow body and serves one purpose - to prepare for the possible conception of a child. Progesterone during pregnancy contributes to the safe bearing of the fetus. The lack of a hormone leads to spontaneous miscarriage and other serious complications.

The role of progesterone during pregnancy

Before pregnancy, progesterone is synthesized by the corpus luteum. This temporary gland is formed immediately after ovulation in the second (luteal) phase of the cycle and continues to function until the next menstruation. The task of the hormone at this stage is to provide conditions for the possible implantation of the embryo.

The effect of progesterone in the second phase of the cycle:

  • Preparation of the mucous membrane of the uterus for the adoption of the ovum. The endometrium gradually grows and thickens, the supply of nutrients increases in its cells. Adequate endometrial thickness ensures normal during the first trimester of pregnancy.
  • Reduced immunity. The maternal organism perceives the embryo as an alien object and tries to get rid of it. Progesterone inhibits the activity of the immune system and contributes to the preservation of pregnancy.
  • The secretion of fallopian tubes for the safe transport of the egg into the uterus. Synthesized mucus also provides nutrition to the fetus as it progresses through the fallopian tubes.

You can track the change in progesterone level by basal temperature. To do this, every day, starting from the first day of the cycle, take measurements in the rectum (in the morning, without getting out of bed). Progesterone and body temperature are closely related.

After ovulation (the release of a ripe egg from the ovary), the level of the hormone increases, and the basal temperature rises by 0.3-0.5 degrees. At this point, it remains until the end of the menstrual cycle.

If the pregnancy does not occur, the concentration of progesterone drops, and rejection of the uterine mucous membrane occurs - menstruation.

With the successful conception of the child, the basal temperature remains above 37 degrees throughout the first trimester..

In early pregnancy, progesterone plays such a role:

  • Reduces the tone of the muscle layer of the uterus and prevents miscarriage.
  • Promotes the development of the mammary glands and their preparation for milk production.
  • Increases the elasticity of the pelvic ligaments, helps the body to adapt to the upcoming delivery.
  • Determines the formation of the dominant pregnancy in the brain. Now all the processes occurring in the woman’s body will be subordinated to the same goal - bearing the fetus.

How to pass the analysis?

Outside of pregnancy, a blood test to determine the hormone is prescribed in such situations:

  • Violations of the menstrual cycle.
  • Dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
  • Infertility - the inability to conceive a child for 12 months.
  • Pregnancy failure - repeated spontaneous miscarriages.

A blood test for progesterone is taken on the 21-22nd day of the cycle.. This tactic will only be correct if approximately 28 days pass from one menstruation to another. If a woman’s cycle is irregular, it is important to pre-calculate the date of ovulation, and then count off from her 7-8 days. This day will be the optimal time for the survey.

In pregnancy, the routine determination of progesterone is not carried out. A doctor may prescribe a blood sample in such situations:

  • The threat of termination of pregnancy on the basis of complaints of a woman (abdominal pain, bloody vaginal discharge) or ultrasound data.
  • Signs of placental insufficiency and delayed fetal development.
  • Diagnosis of true post-pregnancy after the 41st week.

In the normal course of gestation, the study is not conducted.

Blood sampling occurs strictly on an empty stomach in the morning from 8 to 14 hours. The material for the study is taken from the vein. On the eve of the test, it is recommended to refrain from smoking and taking alcohol, to avoid mental and physical exertion.

Decoding analysis is carried out only by a doctor. A decrease or increase in the hormone is not a diagnosis. It is important to evaluate all the available data in order to find out the cause of such deviations and select the correct treatment strategy.

Progesterone during pregnancy and at its planning stage: why is it important to monitor its level?

Progesterone is not for nothing called the "hormone of pregnancy", because it is it that ensures its safe progress, is responsible for the preservation, controls the functioning of all systems and physiological processes, and also prepares the female body for the upcoming birth. This hormone is classified as sex or steroid.

Since it is produced by the adrenal glands of any person, progesterone is present in small amounts in every organism. However, it can still be produced by male testes and female ovaries, but it is for women that the hormone is of paramount importance.

Progesterone: features of the hormone, its main role and functional significance

The importance of progesterone was proven as early as the 1930s, when a whole galaxy of world chemical scientists discovered this hormone. Investigating the corpus luteum of the ovaries, they isolated it, proving the undeniable effect of the substance on the body's ability to conceive and bear a child.

Responsibility for hormone production lies on the ovaries and adrenal glands.

If a woman is not preparing to become a mother, the level of progesterone in her body can fluctuate. But when a pregnancy comes, there should simply be no hesitation, because there are special norms for the level of the hormone in accordance with a certain period.

How does progesterone production occur?

When a woman begins the menstrual cycle (at the very beginning of the follicular phase), the hormone is released in very small quantities.

This continues up to the ovulatory phase itself, the period of formation of the temporary endocrine gland or the corpus luteum.

This gland begins to carry out intensive work on the preparation of the body for conception, therefore it is very actively producing progesterone.

With successful fertilization of the egg and conceived conception, the hormone is produced in large quantities, so that its level increases significantly.

About three and a half months (approximately until the 16th week of gestation) the corpus luteum will still be responsible for its production, and then the production functions are shifted to the placenta.

If the pregnancy for some reason has not come, the level of progesterone gradually falls. Somewhere in two weeks, the corpus luteum dies off, and the cycle begins anew.

Progesterone function

In addition to the fact that this hormone is key to the process of conception, preservation and gestation of pregnancy, it also performs many different functions that are not limited to the effect on the reproductive organs:

  • Progesterone interacts with other hormones, and thanks to their joint work, the pancreas, gall bladder, immune system, etc., function correctly.
  • he takes part in the activity of the nervous and muscular systems,
  • normalizes the level of blood viscosity and sugar concentration in it,
  • prevents the formation of fibrous cyst in the glandular tissues,
  • reduces manifestations of premenstrual and climacteric syndromes,
  • the hormone has a positive effect on metabolism, with the result that the body can extract exactly the amount of nutrients and nutrients that it needs from the food, as well as make their necessary supply,
  • these processes are simply invaluable when a woman becomes pregnant, because the energy and other costs of the mother and fetus will be provided in time,
  • it is progesterone that does not allow the female body to expel an embryo that is alien to it, which contains the father’s gene.

The value of progesterone for pregnancy

If a woman's progesterone level is normal and corresponds to the duration of her pregnancy, then she feels well, and all the physiological processes associated with her condition proceed safely:

  • the inner lining of the uterus or endometrium thickens, so that good conditions are created for the fixation of a fertilized egg,
  • progesterone takes an active part in the work of the muscular system (ligaments and tendons, due to its effect, prepare correctly for the upcoming birth process, and the pelvic bones learn to relax),
  • in addition, the muscles of the uterus are also at rest, because the hormone prevents them from contracting, preventing the appearance of uterus tone, the threat of miscarriage or spontaneous abortion,
  • thanks to the regulatory function of progesterone, the uterus can grow, gradually preparing for growth and development of the fetus,
  • he is actively involved in the formation of tissue in the embryo and has an impact on the development of steroid hormones in his body,
  • Progesterone also has a strong effect on the mammary glands, contributing to their growth and secretory transformation.

So, for a potential mother, the presence of normal progesterone in the body is very important, because it is he who is directly associated with successful conception, successful pregnancy and successful delivery. In addition, the hormone provides the necessary nutrition for the baby, both in my mother's belly, and after his birth.

Analyzes and norms before pregnancy

At the planning stage of pregnancy, a woman takes a sample (blood) for progesterone after ovulation, on the 21st day of the menstrual cycle (as recommended by the doctor with a regular 28-day cycle) or 6 days before the expected menstruation.

With an irregular menstrual cycle - the analysis is repeated several times.

Like any other tests, this one also gives in the morning, strictly on an empty stomach. Make sure that no less than 8 hours pass before the material is collected from the last meal.

Water, if you want, you can drink. Also, you should exclude any hormonal drugs (pay attention to steroid and thyroid hormones).

Some doctors advise to avoid physical and emotional overload for a day or two before analysis. Не рекомендуется и курить в течение нескольких часов до того, как вы будете сдавать кровь (если вы еще не бросили эту вредную привычку на стадии планирования беременности).

Нормы для женщин репродуктивного возраста (могут колебаться, так как каждый организм индивидуален):

  • во время фолликулярной фазы ‒ 0,32-2,23 нмоль/л,
  • during ovulation - 0.48-9.41 nmol / l,
  • during the luteal phase - 6,99-56,63 nmol / l.

Only the doctor can decipher the test results, so you cannot make a diagnosis yourself.

If the balance of progesterone is disturbed (usually lowered), then it will be difficult for you to conceive a child.

And if the pregnancy does come, then you need to know that a hormone deficiency can cause miscarriage or early miscarriage.

Analyzes during pregnancy

As a rule, future mothers donate blood for hormonal analysis in the second half of pregnancy. This allows you to make a diagnosis of the state, both the placenta and the child.

According to the testimony of the study can be carried out earlier if the symptoms or complaints of women indicate an imbalance of progesterone, as well as at the very end of pregnancy.

This option is possible if the baby does not come to light in any way to find out why this happens: if a pregnant woman removes the child, the aging placenta is no longer able to meet its vital needs, which can lead to complications and create a danger to the health and life of the fetus.

It is especially important to control the level of progesterone in early pregnancy.

Some laboratories define progesterone levels by trimester, others by week. Also vary the units of measurement.

Progesterone levels during pregnancy

Progesterone increases during pregnancy, and the longer the gestation period, the higher the level of this hormone in the blood of the expectant mother. The levels of this hormone in non-pregnant women are different in different phases of the menstrual cycle. Progesterone is called the hormone of pregnancy, is offered to women seeking to become pregnant, to control its level, and if necessary, to correct it with drugs. To reduce the level of this hormone is often attributed to the problems of pregnancy loss. Is it really important to control and adjust progesterone levels?

What is progesterone?

This is a steroid hormone. It is present in both men and women. Progesterone is produced by the adrenal glands. And women also have ovaries. The level of progesterone in women in the first (follicular) phase of the menstrual cycle is low. After ovulation, when an egg cell leaves the ovary, a corpus luteum is formed. It starts to actively produce progesterone, monthly preparing the woman's body for pregnancy.

If the pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum dies, and the woman starts menstruating. In the same case, if the egg met with the sperm and fertilization occurred, the corpus luteum continues to actively produce progesterone during pregnancy in the early stages, significantly increasing its level in the blood of the woman. It is due to the increased progesterone menstruation stops, and the woman slowly begins to gain weight.

Progesterone is designed to protect the pregnancy. It creates the necessary conditions for the fertilized egg to be fixed in the uterus, reduces the contractility of the uterus, protecting the body from miscarriages.

Progesterone increases by week of pregnancy gradually. In the first trimester, its level rises. By the second trimester, the placenta takes over the function of producing this hormone. The level of this hormone increases even more in the third trimester and decreases sharply just before the birth. At this moment, its antagonist, the hormone prolactin, comes into its own. That is why absolutely all women after childbirth milk comes.

What is the rate of progesterone

Some time ago, and even now, doctors sometimes suggest that pregnant women, as well as those who are trying to find reasons why a pregnancy does not occur, should be tested for progesterone levels. Supporters of evidence-based medicine, doctors who use evidence-based facts in their work, say that there is no clear regulatory data for this hormone. And to the question what is the norm of progesterone in pregnancy, they say that these are higher rates than in the pre-pregnancy state. The longer the pregnancy, the higher the level of progesterone. And it certainly does not have to worry a woman with increased progesterone during pregnancy, and how much these numbers are different from the “norm”.

It is believed that the use of progesterone drugs is effective before the planned conception and in early pregnancy. The increased tone of the uterus in the early stages, which gynecologists from regional consultations very much like to qualify as a threat of termination of pregnancy, is very often treated with prescription of progesterone preparations. These drugs were considered "magic pill". However, international studies do not confirm the effectiveness of such treatment. Moreover, scientists say that there is no direct relationship between the level of progesterone and the ability to conceive, as well as the "treatment" of uterine tone.

Due to the fact that there is no data on what level of progesterone during pregnancy is an absolute norm, tests seem completely unnecessary and uninformative. For example, the level of this hormone in the luteal (last) phase of the menstrual cycle ranges from 6 to 60 nmol / liter, in the first trimester of pregnancy - from 8 to 450, and in the third, from about 80 to 800 nmol / liter. Thus, a value of, for example, 70 units will be slightly higher than the norm for a non-pregnant woman and slightly lower for a pregnant woman at the 9th month.

Informative from the point of view of medicine can only be the results of analyzes of a particular woman in different phases of the cycle and at different stages of pregnancy. Normally, one way or another, the level is lower before ovulation, higher - after, and progesterone grows during pregnancy almost until it ends. There is only one, perhaps, circumstance for controlling the level of this hormone in a woman’s blood. And this circumstance is in vitro fertilization. For women who become pregnant naturally, this analysis is superfluous.

There is no doubt that pregnancy with low progesterone is possible. But the lack of physiological fluctuations in the level of this hormone during the cycle may indicate the absence of ovulation. More precisely, it is the lack of ovulation and is the cause of low progesterone.

Hormones during pregnancy play a very important role and are responsible for its normal course. But control of progesterone levels, as well as the use of drugs that increase progesterone, according to modern scientists, is often not justified. Only TSH makes sense to control - thyroid-stimulating hormone. For this, there is a screening study in the first trimester.

Progesterone when planning pregnancy

During the planning period of conception, progesterone plays an equally important role than, directly, already during the carrying of a baby. It should be contained at the time of conception in the female body in the required amount, as it improves the quality of the ovum, creates conditions in the uterus that are favorable for conception, and strengthens its endometrium.

In addition, progesterone performs other important tasks. It prevents the occurrence of fibrous cystic neoplasms, ensures the proper use of adipose tissue for the production of additional energy and makes the level of blood clotting and glucose optimal.

Thus, progesterone is an essential element of the reproductive health of the female body, and not only during the planning period, as well as carrying the baby, but throughout life.

When planning a child, the girl must pass an analysis on the content of this hormone and identify its level. If it is not normal, you should bring it to the desired value. In order for the results of the analysis to be as accurate as possible, you should follow some rules before submitting it, which will be described below.

Can progesterone interrupt pregnancy?

Progesterone cannot interrupt the process of gestation, as this hormone, on the contrary, guarantees its optimal development. It has its own effect through receptors. Abortion can be progesterone blocking drugs. Actually, today such drugs are used for medical abortion.

Progesterone is elevated during pregnancy.

Too much increased progesterone in the female body is also considered a dangerous condition. It may indicate various pathologies, for example:

  • impaired development of the placenta,
  • renal failure
  • pathology and impaired adrenal glands, etc.

Also, an increased level of hormone can also be observed if the expectant mother expects not one, but two or three babies.

Progesterone injections for pregnancy

Drugs containing progesterone are often prescribed for the occurrence of pregnancy with infertility. But only if it is a consequence of insufficient production of the hormone, as a result of which a high content of estrogens is observed in the female body. In case of infertility, progesterone can be prescribed for the onset of pregnancy either in pills or in the form of injections.

Blood test

Since the indicators of this analysis will depend on the phase of the menstrual cycle, when you take progesterone when planning pregnancy, your doctor will determine. When the date is set, follow the simple guidelines so that you do not retake blood later:

  1. it's better to do this in the morning
  2. the analysis is taken on an empty stomach, so 8 hours before the blood sampling nothing can be eaten: you can only drink clean, non-carbonated water,
  3. the day before the progesterone test is better not to smoke, not to drink alcoholic beverages and not to engage in intense physical exertion.

With the usual length of the menstrual cycle of 28 days, the doctor prescribes a blood test for progesterone for 22–23 days. It will depend on the individual characteristics of the organism. Indicators, in turn, will depend on the phase of the cycle.

Changes in the level of this unique hormone are associated with different phases of the menstrual cycle. So the analysis is taken on certain days. The standard rate of progesterone in pregnancy planning comes down to the following indicators:

  • from 0.33 to 2.23 nmol / l at the follicular phase,
  • from 0.48 to 9.41 nmol / l for ovulatory,
  • from 6.99 to 56.63 nmol / l with luteal.

The results of the blood test for progesterone are compared with this norm, after which the doctor decides what to do next.

Deviations from the norm

The level of this hormone is normal in the period of carrying a baby increases, which ensures a normal course of pregnancy. Because of this, this indicator is tracked even before conception. What can he say?

  1. If he was diagnosed with elevated progesterone when planning pregnancy, it is not so scary, although you need to look at how he is elevated. Usually, in such a situation, the expectant mother is advised not to panic, follow an appropriate diet and continue to prepare for pregnancy.
  2. It is another matter if low progesterone was detected during pregnancy planning, which may subsequently have a negative impact not only on conception (it may not happen at all), but also on the intrauterine development of the fetus. In this situation, the doctor is already deciding on the appointment of drug treatment.

If a deviation from progesterone levels in the blood is detected during pregnancy planning, a drug treatment is prescribed in order to correct its level. At the same time it is necessary to use hormonal drugs. The course is usually chosen by the doctor individually, depending on the indicators of the analysis and the general condition of the female body. Before prescribing hormone therapy, the doctor must tell about its positive and negative sides.

Hormonal therapy

With a reduced level of progesterone at the planning stage of pregnancy, injections are usually prescribed, if the following contraindications are not available:

  • any liver or kidney disease,
  • thromboembolic diseases
  • hepatitis,
  • vaginal bleeding of unknown origin,
  • breast carcinoma.

Be wary of using similar hormone therapy for the following diseases:

  • cardiovascular abnormalities
  • abnormal liver or kidney function
  • diabetes,
  • bronchial asthma,
  • epilepsy,
  • migraine,
  • depression.

There are a number of conclusions about the dangers of detergent cosmetics. Unfortunately, not all newly-made moms listen to them. In 97% of baby shampoos, the dangerous substance Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS) or its analogues is used. Many articles have been written about the effects of this chemistry on the health of both children and adults. At the request of our readers, we tested the most popular brands. The results were disappointing - the most publicized companies showed the presence of those most dangerous components. In order not to violate the legal rights of manufacturers, we cannot name specific brands.

The company Mulsan Cosmetic, the only one who passed all the tests, successfully received 10 points out of 10 (see). Each product is made from natural ingredients, completely safe and hypoallergenic.

If you doubt the naturalness of your cosmetics, check the expiration date, it should not exceed 10 months. Come carefully to the choice of cosmetics, it is important for you and your child.

Progesterone is a very important hormone of the female body, on which the success of conception and the process of carrying a child largely depends. Therefore, it is so important when planning a pregnancy to find out its level and compare the figures with the norm in order to correct and lead to the necessary figures. All this must be done under the strict guidance of a doctor.

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