Children's adenoviral conjunctivitis, features of treatment
Infectious viral diseases are highly contagious and prevalent. These pathologies with the same frequency can occur both in children and in the adult population. Most often, the group of acute respiratory viral infections affects the mucous membranes. These include the nasopharynx, tonsils, conjunctiva. Sometimes viral infections occur with syndrome of gastric and intestinal dyspepsia. Diseases of the SARS group are similar in clinical picture. Nevertheless, each of the pathologies has its own characteristic features. For example, with adenovirus infection, the upper respiratory tract and conjunctiva of the eye are affected. In most cases, this pathology develops in children. That they have in the first place often comes adenoviral conjunctivitis. Symptoms and treatment of infection differ from other acute respiratory viral infections slightly. To know how to deal with this disease, should not only doctors, but also kindergarten teachers, as well as parents. After all, timely treatment and preventive measures help to avoid the spread of infection.
What is acute adenoviral conjunctivitis?
Conjunctivitis is an inflammatory lesion of the mucous membrane of the inner surface of the eyelids. This disease often accompanies colds. In addition, there are such respiratory infections in which inflammation of the eyelids comes to the fore. Such pathological conditions include adenoviral conjunctivitis. The symptoms and treatment of this disease are somewhat different from infections caused by bacteria. The main clinical manifestations of pathology are tearing and redness of the eyes. In addition, adenoviral infection is manifested and a number of other symptoms. How to treat conjunctivitis depends on the etiology of the disease. If the cause is ARVI, prescribe antiviral treatment. Therefore, you should not use antibacterial eye drops at the first signs of inflammation. How long adenovirus conjunctivitis is treated depends on the state of the immune system. In most cases, the symptoms of SARS disappear within 5-10 days.
Etiological factors in the development of the disease
This disease is caused by a virus from the ARVI group. The causative agent was discovered in the middle of the 20th century. It is known that adenovirus is highly resistant to low temperature and many disinfectants. This is due to the presence of a special shell - a capsid that protects the virus from damage. Inside is a double-stranded DNA, which contains genetic information about the microorganism. The virus contains 3 factors of aggression. Among them:
- Antigen A. This is a complement-binding pathogen. Its action is due to the suppression of phagocytosis, that is, the process of capture of microorganisms by cells of the immune system.
- Antigen Century. Causes intoxication of the body.
- Antigen C. This pathogenic factor is collected on the surface of red blood cells.
Adenovirus dies under the action of high temperatures (when boiling). It is also sensitive to some antiseptics.
Pathogenesis of adenoviral conjunctivitis
When a pathogen enters the body, inflammatory changes in the upper respiratory tract, signs of intoxication, as well as adenoviral conjunctivitis develop. The symptoms and treatment of the infection are similar to other respiratory diseases. The mechanism of the disease is due to the antigenic structure of the virus. The entrance gate for infection is the mucous membrane of the nasal passages, pharynx, and conjunctiva. It is there that adenovirus multiplies. As a result of the presence of the pathogen, the mucous membranes become inflamed. In addition, the adenovirus can enter the lymph nodes and intestines. For this reason, the clinical picture may be different. Nevertheless, the development of adenoviral conjunctivitis is typical for this disease. In contact with the mucous membrane of the eyelids and sclera, an increase in the permeability of cell membranes occurs. As a result, edema and exudative phenomena develop. Due to the presence in the structure of the causative agent of antigen C, the destruction of red blood cells may occur. This is manifested by injection of sclera, hemorrhage. Adenoviral conjunctivitis develops with the same frequency as the female population, and among men. Children get sick more often than adults. The infection is transmitted by airborne droplets. The source is an infected person.
The clinical picture in adenoviral conjunctivitis
In order to distinguish the disease from other types of acute respiratory viral infections, it is necessary to know the clinical features that characterize adenovirus infection. Conjunctivitis can occur in other catarrhal pathologies. However, inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eyes is considered more typical for adenoviral infection. Conjunctivitis is manifested by the following symptoms:
- Redness of the eyes, swelling on the affected side.
- Itching and burning.
- Blepharospasm - the upper eyelid on the affected side is omitted.
- The appearance of serous conjunctiva. In case of late treatment, the bacterial infection joins. In this case, the exudate becomes purulent.
- Sensation of a foreign body in the eye.
It is worth remembering that the development of conjunctivitis is preceded by the initial period of the disease, which lasts 5-7 days. At this time, intoxication syndrome prevails (fever, loss of appetite, weakness), signs of rhinitis and pharyngitis. Sometimes there is an increase in the cervical lymph nodes and dyspepsia.
Clinical forms of adenoviral conjunctivitis
Initially, the disease inflammatory process is noted on one eye. If you do not immediately take action, then within 2-3 days develop bilateral adenoviral conjunctivitis. How long the disease lasts depends on how quickly the treatment is started. When joining a bacterial infection, conjunctivitis can occur up to 2 weeks. If the treatment is started on time, the symptoms can go away within 5 days. Depending on the clinical form of emit:
- Catarrhal adenoviral conjunctivitis. It is characterized by minor signs of inflammation (moderate redness) and unexpressed exudation. Complications in most cases are not observed.
- Follicular adenoviral conjunctivitis. It is characterized by the appearance of small eruptions on the inner surface of the eyelid. In some cases, the follicles are large, covering the entire mucous membrane of the eye. The surface of the eyelid is hyperemic, scleral injection is noted.
- Filmy adenoviral conjunctivitis. A distinctive feature of this form is the formation of thin fibrin overlays covering the mucous membrane of the eye. They are usually easily removed with a gauze pad. In severe cases, the films are tightly soldered to the mucous membrane. In this case, the disease is differentiated from a form of diphtheria.
The course of pathology in adults and children: the differences
In most cases, adenoviral conjunctivitis in adults is mild. Most often it is combined with pharyngitis and rhinitis. Intoxication syndrome is not pronounced, body temperature reaches 37-38 degrees. In terms of frequency of occurrence, the catarrhal form of conjunctivitis is the first. With a weakened immune system can be observed lymphadenopathy and gastrointestinal disorders.
Adenoviral conjunctivitis is more common in children than among adults. In collectives (preschool, boarding schools) outbreaks of infection may occur. Symptoms in middle-aged children do not differ from adults. With timely treatment, recovery occurs in 5-7 days. A feature of the disease in young children is the frequent accession of a bacterial infection, high body temperature, follicular and membranous forms of inflammation.
Diagnosis of adenoviral conjunctivitis
To identify adenoviral conjunctivitis, a study of discharge from the eyes, nose, smear from the pharynx is taken. Also for the diagnosis of a medical history is of great importance. Characteristic features of adenovirus infection are: intoxication and catarrhal phenomena that precede conjunctivitis. Most often, symptoms develop several days after contact with the patient. In addition to virological research, serological diagnosis is performed: complement fixation, indirect hemagglutination, ELISA.
Adenoviral conjunctivitis: symptoms and treatment of pathology
Etiological treatment of infection are antiviral drugs. These include medications "Remantadin", "Anaferon", "Arbidol", etc. How to treat conjunctivitis caused by adenovirus infection? Ophthalmoferon drops are considered the drug of choice for inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eyes. In addition, treatment depends on the symptoms of the disease. Such a sign as purulent discharge from the eye, is the reason for the appointment of antibacterial drugs. These include ointments containing the drug "Erythromycin", "Gentamicin". If the symptom of the disease is the appearance of films on the mucous membrane of the eye, local treatment is recommended. The raids are removed using gauze swabs moistened in warm boiled water. After that apply antimicrobial agents. For example, eye drops "Albucid", "Tsiprolet."
Prevention of adenovirus infection
The preventive measures include isolation of patients from the team, anti-epidemic measures (airing the room, sanitization). After contact with infected people, it is recommended to take immunostimulatory drugs. These include medications "IRS-19", "Anaferon." It is also recommended to lubricate the nasal passages with oxolinic ointment during outbreaks of ARVI.
Causes and risk factors
Sporadic cases of adenoviral conjunctivitis are most often caused by type IV, VI, VII and X adenoviruses. Epidemic cases are usually due to adenovirus type III, VIIa and XI.
Infection is transmitted by contact-household or airborne droplets. When sneezing, coughing, or through dirty hands, the adenovirus falls on the mucous membrane of the eyeball.
Risk factors that increase the risk of developing adenoviral conjunctivitis are:
- eye injuries (including operating),
- non-compliance with the rules of wearing and care for contact lenses,
- swimming in public pools and open water.
From the moment of infection and until the first symptoms of adenoviral conjunctivitis appear, it takes from 2 to 10 days (in most cases, the incubation period is 5-7 days). In the process of vital activity, adenoviruses lead to the destruction of epithelial cells, which is characterized by hypertrophy of the nucleoli, chromatin disintegration, vacuolization.
Forms of the disease
Depending on the characteristics of the clinical course, there are three forms of adenoviral conjunctivitis:
The first two forms of the disease can occur in patients of any age, and the latter occurs predominantly in children.
In most cases, adenoviral conjunctivitis in 15-30 days ends with complete recovery.
Symptoms of adenoviral conjunctivitis
The first symptoms of adenoviral conjunctivitis are:
After a few days, the body temperature drops, and then it rises again. At this moment, patients show signs of a conjunctival lesion, first with one and then with the other eye:
- redness and swelling of the eyelids,
- foreign body sensation
- unsharp blepharospasm
- scanty mucous or mucopurulent discharge.
Hyperemia (redness) of the conjunctiva covers all its departments, and also extends to the lower and semi-lunar fold, lacrimal caruncle.
The catarrhal form of adenoviral conjunctivitis is characterized by slightly pronounced symptoms of local inflammation. The amount of discharge is insignificant, redness of the mucous membrane of the eyes is moderate. The duration of the disease does not exceed a week. Corneal complications do not develop.
In follicular adenoviral conjunctivitis, follicles (small bubbles) 1-2 mm in size appear on the mucous membrane of the eyes, filled with translucent gelatinous contents. They can cover the entire surface of the mucous membrane or concentrate in the corners of the eyelids.
Attention! Photo of shocking content.
To view, click on the link. Adenoviral conjunctivitis in children in 25% of cases is represented by a membranous form. The disease is characterized by the appearance on the conjunctiva of thin delicate films of grayish-white color. In most cases, they can be easily removed with a cotton swab, but sometimes they take the form of dense fibrous deposits, soldered to the mucous membrane. In this case, they are removed with difficulty, after removal of the conjunctival areas under them bleed. Some patients develop infiltrates and hemorrhages in the subconjunctival space. After recovery, they completely dissolve. With membranous adenoviral conjunctivitis in children and in most adults, the general condition suffers: body temperature rises to 38.5–39.5 ° C, general malaise, weakness, and headache appear. The duration of the febrile period is from 3 to 10 days.
Treatment of adenoviral conjunctivitis
Therapy of adenoviral conjunctivitis is carried out on an outpatient basis. In the first week of the disease, antiviral drugs are instilled into the conjunctival sac 6–8 times a day. In the second week, the frequency of their use is reduced to 2-3 times per day. Antiviral action ointments can also be used, which are placed 3-4 times a day for eyelids.
In order to prevent the accession of a secondary bacterial infection, the use of eye drops and ointments with antibiotics or sulfa drugs is shown.
During the course of treatment of adenoviral conjunctivitis, antihistamines are prescribed to patients.
For the prevention of the development of xerophthalmia (dry eye syndrome), patients are recommended several times a day to instill moisturizing eye drops of the “artificial tear” type.
Possible consequences and complications
Late or inadequate treatment of adenoviral conjunctivitis may cause the development of complications:
In most cases, the prognosis is favorable, after 15-30 days ends with complete recovery. If the patient develops dry eye syndrome, it becomes necessary for a long time to use moisturizing eye drops.
Features of the disease
Most often, infection with conjunctivitis occurs through airborne droplets. Less commonly, the virus penetrates through contact with a virus carrier. The stage of the incubation period, when the symptoms of the disease do not appear, lasts about 3-10 days. The disease often becomes an epidemic in the spring and autumn.
In addition to the above factors, the causes of the development of the disease in a child also include:
- frequent hypothermia
- bruised eyes
- violation of hygiene,
- allergic reaction,
- infectious, viral and fungal infections of the body,
- prolonged exposure to irritants (dust, chemicals, etc.),
- exceeding the established period of wearing contact lenses,
- eye pathologies,
- individual (allergic) reaction of the body to certain groups of drugs.
Conjunctivitis is classified into:
Acute. This form of the disease is characterized by a bright clinical picture, accompanied by reddening of the eyes and the appearance of small blood clots, which are caused by bursting capillaries.
Chronic. This form is uncharacteristic for children, but can also occur in them. Symptoms in the chronic course of the disease are mild. Without treatment, both eyes are affected.
Adenoviral conjunctivitis is of three types:
- Catarrhal In this form of the disease, foci of inflammation are localized in a strictly defined area. Quite often there is redness of the sclera of the eye. Catarrhal conjunctivitis passes within a week and is easily treatable. However, this form of the disease only in rare cases causes the development of complications.
- Follicular When follicular conjunctivitis is observed loosened mucous membrane of the affected eye, on which there are multiple formations in the form of bubbles with a liquid. The latter may have a different size. Externally, the manifestations of the follicular form are similar to the symptoms of trachoma. However, it is not difficult to differentiate between both pathologies. When trachoma is observed fever and other symptoms that are not characteristic of the disease.
- Filmy. The membranous form is most characteristic especially for children. It is diagnosed in about 25% of cases. The main sign indicating the presence of membranous conjunctivitis are thin films that cover the mucous membrane of the affected eye. To remove such formations is not difficult: it is enough to wipe the infected area with a cotton pad. У некоторых пациентов удаление пленки сопровождается появление кровотечения.This form of the disease can leave behind small scars on the mucous membrane.
After infection with adenoviruses, the disease does not always manifest itself at the end of the incubation period. However, the child remains the carrier of the pathogen and is dangerous to others. In such cases, the first manifestations of the pathology arise after a decrease in the body's immune defense.
The clinical picture characteristic of conjunctivitis differs depending on the form of the disease. Initially, the virus infects only one eye. Infection of the second occurs after about three days.
The following symptoms are among the common symptoms of this pathology:
- red eyes,
- the appearance of edema in the eyelid,
- heavy discharge from the eyes,
- the patient feels the presence of a foreign body in the infected area,
- decreased corneal sensitivity.
The clinical picture is characterized by various phenomena depending on the form of the disease:
In the catarrhal form of pathology in children are observed:
- active work of the lacrimal glands,
- pain in the eyes,
- redness and swelling of the eyes.
Catarrhal conjunctivitis is often diagnosed in children during the first year of their life.
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As with the catarrhal form of conjunctivitis, with follicular eye swelling and redness are observed. This disease can be distinguished from others by the presence of a multitude of bubbles of gray tint on the mucous membrane. Also, the course of pathology is accompanied by the appearance of purulent discharge.
Above it was said that the development of the filmy form of pathology is accompanied by the appearance of thin gray-white films on the mucosa. The rest of the symptoms do not differ from the clinical picture of follicular and catarrhal conjunctivitis.
Treatment of adenoviral conjunctivitis involves the use of drugs that simultaneously inhibit the development of pathogenic microflora and do not harm the mucous membrane.
Disease therapy is determined depending on the nature of the pathology. If conjunctivitis is mild, then the following drugs are prescribed:
- drugs that are aimed at strengthening the body,
A prerequisite for a successful recovery is compliance with the rules of personal hygiene. In more severe cases, treatment is applied using a broad-spectrum eye drops. Therapeutic course lasts for a week. Medicines are buried daily 8 times. At the end of the therapeutic course, the drugs are applied up to 2-3 times a day.
In the treatment of conjunctivitis in children, the following medications are used:
In the presence of complications are additionally appointed:
- antibacterial drugs
- vasoconstrictor drugs.
They prevent the spread of pathogenic microflora and prevent secondary infection of the body. If during the examination of the patient photophobia was detected, the doctor complements the therapy with artificial moisturizers.
The duration of treatment of conjunctivitis is determined by the nature of the course of the disease and the individual characteristics of the patient. A simple form of pathology, while respecting the rules of personal hygiene and taking immunomodulators, passes fairly quickly. Treatment of complicated conjunctivitis takes about one month.
What is adenoviral conjunctivitis
Adenoviral conjunctivitis is an acute infection of the eye with an eye. The disease may be accompanied by fever, nasopharyngitis, characteristic symptoms (itching, swelling, increased tearing, discharge from the affected eye).
To diagnose this form of conjunctivitis is possible by conducting bacteriological examination and PCR scraping. Therapy for adenoviral conjunctivitis includes antiviral and antibacterial drugs. Relapses of adenoviral conjunctivitis are rare.
Causes of disease
Adenoviral conjunctivitis is a highly contagious infection, that is, the disease is infectious. Outbreaks of the disease are observed in the autumn-spring period (mainly in children's groups).
This form of conjunctivitis is provoked by different types of adenovirus. Despite the fact that many eye damage by viruses seems to be a simple disease, without timely treatment, it can lead to serious complications.
During an outbreak of the disease, serotype 3, 7a, and 11 adenoviruses become conjunctivitis pathogens. Sporadic cases are mainly caused by adenovirus type 4, 6, 7 and 10. Adenoviruses enter the body by airborne droplets or by contact. On the mucous membrane of the eye, the infection falls on coughing, sneezing and dirty hands.
- contact with infected,
- mechanical damage to the eye,
- non-compliance with the rules of hygiene,
- swimming in a polluted pool or pond,
- inadequate care for contact lenses,
- cornea surgery,
Symptoms of eye damage by adenoviruses
Contact with the patient, hypothermia, respiratory illness, eye injury, and surgery may provoke the development of the disease. From the moment of infection to the first symptoms, it takes 5-7 days.
The first symptoms of adenoviral conjunctivitis include fever, headaches, signs of pharyngitis and rhinitis, dyspepsia. Sometimes submandibular lymphadenitis develops. Later there are signs of conjunctivitis. First, the disease affects one eye and gradually moves to the second.
Local symptoms of adenoviral conjunctivitis:
- redness (in all parts of the conjunctiva),
- the discomfort,
- scant discharge (mucous or mucopurulent),
- itching and burning,
Forms of adenoviral conjunctivitis
The catarrhal form of conjunctivitis appears weakly. There is a slight local inflammation with little pronounced redness and a moderate amount of discharge. It is easy to cure the catarrhal form, as a rule, the disease resolves within a week. Corneal complications are usually not observed.
The follicular form is accompanied by vesicular rash on the mucous membrane of the eye. Follicles are small and large, dotted, translucent. In mild cases, the rash is localized in the corners of the eyelids, but usually covers the entire mucous membrane. The conjunctiva becomes loosened and infiltrated.
Despite the fact that follicular eruptions resemble the first stage of trachoma, doctors rarely make the wrong diagnosis. This is due to the fact that when trachoma there are no symptoms of nasopharyngitis and fever, and the rash is collected on the conjunctiva of the upper eyelid.
Filmy form of adenoviral conjunctivitis is observed in 25% of patients. A thin grayish-white film is formed on the mucosa. In light form, the film is removed with a cotton swab, but in severe cases, a dense overlay is formed, which is soldered to the conjunctiva. After removing the film, the mucosa can even bleed.
With membranous conjunctivitis, body temperature rises to 38-39 ° C and lasts 3-10 days. Due to the similarity of symptoms, eye damage may be confused with diphtheria. Sometimes with membranous adenoviral conjunctivitis, subconjunctival hemorrhages and infiltrates occur. These phenomena completely disappear after treatment, sometimes scarring of the mucous membranes is noted as a complication. Bacterial or toxic-allergic conjunctivitis, dry eye syndrome, keratitis, otitis, tonsillitis and adenoiditis are also possible.
Diagnosis of conjunctivitis
Often, adenoviral conjunctivitis is diagnosed in young children and middle-aged adults. Depending on the severity of the disease can last 1-3 weeks. Infection gets into the eyes with dirty hands, household items, airborne droplets. The latter route of transmission is noted quite rarely, but the danger cannot be ruled out.
When treating a patient with symptoms of adenoviral conjunctivitis, the ophthalmologist should determine whether there is contact with patients. Examination reveals conjunctivitis symptoms, catarrhal changes of the upper respiratory tract and lymphadenitis.
To accurately diagnose, the doctor prescribes serological, virological and cytological tests. At an early stage, adenoviral conjunctivitis can be detected by immunofluorescence. It allows you to find specific viral antigens in the smear.
Cytological examination of a smear in adenoviral conjunctivitis reveals epithelial destruction, chromatin disintegration, vacuolization, nucleolus hypertrophy and formation of a nuclear envelope. A cytogram contains cells of a predominantly mononuclear type.
The polymer chain reaction is more informative, it detects adenovirus DNA in conjunctival scraping. The complement fixation test and enzyme immunoassay detect antibodies in the serum. In adenoviral conjunctivitis, antibody titers increase four or more times.
Within 14 days after infection, the patient is a carrier of infection, so you need to take precautions. If the disease is severe, the person can be dangerous to others even longer.
In order for a patient with adenovirus conjunctivitis to cope with the disease more easily and not to put close relatives at risk, certain rules must be followed. The patient is placed in a separate room, because adenoviruses are easily transmitted from person to person. It is necessary to minimize close contacts with relatives and especially with children. The room should be ventilated and the windows darkened so as not to irritate the sensitive eye mucosa.
Toilet articles, hygiene products, bedding and tableware must be individualized. A person who cares for a patient must wash his hands thoroughly before and after each manipulation. This not only protects family members from adenoviruses, but also the patient himself from additional infections.
All medicines and instruments for their use should be used only by one patient. All wipes and cotton swabs can only be used once. Handkerchiefs and pipettes must be sterilized. Family members can further enhance immunity.
Prognosis and prevention
With timely treatment of adenoviral conjunctivitis, the prognosis is favorable. Full clinical recovery occurs in 2-4 weeks. Adenoviral conjunctivitis is dangerous with serious complications, so the first symptoms should be seen by a doctor.
Early treatment with antibacterial drugs can get rid of the symptoms in 4-7 days. Mild forms of conjunctivitis can be cured even without medication, following the rules of personal hygiene. Therapy for severe eye damage can last for months.
To prevent eye damage, you need to strengthen your immune system and take vitamins in every possible way. Even in healthy people it is recommended to take immunomodulatory drugs during the flu season. It is important to pay attention to personal hygiene and cleaning, as well as regularly ventilate the premises at home and at work. Hands should be washed after each exit to the street, contact with animals and people.
With the development of ENT diseases, it is necessary to undergo treatment until the end. Redness of the eyes is a reason to wash the mucous with a weak solution of chamomile, manganese or furatsilina. If the redness does not disappear, it is necessary to consult a doctor.
Since outbreaks of adenoviral conjunctivitis are not uncommon in groups, it is necessary to immediately isolate the infected. It is recommended to carry out airing and damp cleaning in rooms.
Complications of adenoviral conjunctivitis
If you experience characteristic symptoms, you should consult a doctor. Adenoviral conjunctivitis is treated by an ophthalmologist (optometrist). It is impossible to postpone treatment of the disease, since it can turn into a chronic form, bacterial conjunctivitis will appear. Complications develop when viruses infect other structures of the eyeball.
Most often inflammation affects the cornea. There are pinpoint turbidity, reduced visual acuity. Depending on the severity of adenoviral conjunctivitis and the state of immunity, these complications can develop within 1-12 months. Without treatment, corneal opacities remain for the rest of their lives, and in the future there may be a thorn. Irreversible loss of vision is possible.
Adenoviral conjunctivitis requires attention. Damage to the eyes can be treated quickly and easily, but if you ignore the recommendations of the doctor, serious complications may develop. Therefore, you can not self-medicate when symptoms of conjunctivitis occur.
What is a disease
Pathological condition causes damage to the mucous membrane of the eye. This is a viral conjunctivitis caused by a particular group of viruses called adenoviruses. Certain strains of the virus cause the phenomenon of acute inflammation of the eyes, also accompanied by symptoms of general infectious intoxication of the body, including fever.
The adenoviral form is contagious and is transmitted in two ways:
- Contact-household: a person touches the eyes with unwashed hands, causing infection (especially typical for children).
- Airborne droplets: from person to person when sneezing, coughing.
The incubation period lasts from 3 to 10 days. Treatment of adenoviral infection of the eye in adults and children is aimed at suppressing the reproduction of the virus and eliminating unpleasant sensations. For this, a number of modern drugs and hygienic procedures are used.
Causes of the disease
In addition to the main - getting the virus on the mucous membrane - there are indirect causes of the disease, which contribute to infection:
- non-compliance with personal hygiene,
- contact with an infected person
- general hypothermia,
- reduced immunity
- swimming in ponds where water does not meet sanitary standards.
In children's groups, adenovirus infection often causes epidemic outbreaks, since children are often careless with hygiene and for a long time are in direct contact with each other in kindergarten or school. Spending at least half a day in one small room with other members of a group or class makes it easy to get infected from each other, which is what happens in such cases, especially with babies.
Symptoms and diagnosis
Adenoviral conjunctivitis has characteristic symptoms. The disease begins with the following symptoms:
- general malaise,
- runny nose, cough,
- headache, weakness,
- enlarged submandibular lymph nodes.
These are the first signs with which adenoviral conjunctivitis begins. After a day or two, the symptoms of the organs of vision join:
- mucous discharge,
- puffiness and redness of the eyelids,
- vascular mesh on the cornea,
- burning, sometimes itching,
- feeling of sand in the eyes,
- lacrimation and photophobia
- if it is a membranous conjunctivitis, then gray-white films form on the mucous membrane.
Diagnosis should be carried out by an ophthalmologist. The diagnosis is confirmed after a study of a conjunctival smear, the result of which shows the presence of one of the strains of adenoviral infection in the patient's biomaterial. After that, appropriate therapy is prescribed.
How to treat adenoviral conjunctivitis
Treatment of adenoviral conjunctivitis is hampered by the fact that there is no specific drug acting specifically on this virus. However, in the arsenal, doctors have effective antiviral agents that act overwhelmingly on many groups of viruses. Therefore, the treatment of adenoviral conjunctivitis in adults and children mainly consists in the following:
- the appointment of antiviral drops and ointments,
- washing the sick eyes,
- Artificial tear drops to relieve symptoms,
- sometimes prescribed antibacterial drugs for the prevention of secondary infection.
With an integrated approach, these methods of treatment give an excellent result: the severity of symptoms decreases, the duration of adenoviral conjunctivitis is reduced.
In pharmacies you can find a wide selection of drugs to combat adenoviral conjunctivitis:
- Drops for the treatment of adenoviral forms most often contain interferon - a natural substance that prevents the reproduction of the virus in the body. Among them are Tebrofen, Laferon and others.
- To alleviate the symptoms of irritation use moisturizing drops: Artificial Tears, Cysteine, Hyphenosis.
- If antimicrobial drops are used to prevent or treat an adhering bacterial infection, then usually Tobrex, Albucidum, Floxal is prescribed.
- It is recommended to put eye ointments at night - antiviral (Bonafton, Florenal), and if necessary, the doctor prescribes an antibacterial (with tetracycline or erythromycin).
Remember that the choice of treatment tactics always remains for the doctor who made the diagnosis. Independent selection of drugs can lead to complications instead of alleviating the condition. When symptoms of adenoviral conjunctivitis appear, first make an appointment with the doctor. Accurately follow its instructions in order to avoid unpleasant consequences and recover in the shortest possible time.
Proper eye hygiene
Hygiene is a very important part of the treatment: before you drop the drops or lay ointment, the eyes must be cleaned of mucous discharge. This is done with a clean cotton swab, new to each eye. If there are films - first remove them.
If the films that form on the mucous membrane with conjunctivitis film form are not removed in a timely manner, the subsequent appearance of wounds and scars on the cornea is possible.
As a solution for washing, you can use decoctions of medicinal plants - chamomile, calendula, sage. Effective washing with furatsilina solution, which has a pronounced antiseptic effect. The eye is washed with soft movements from the outer corner to the inner, towards the nose.
After the eyes are clear of mucus and films, you can begin to instil dripping and ointment.
Complications and prognosis
Adenoviral form of conjunctival inflammation can lead to a number of complications if not treated or treated incorrectly. Among such consequences:
- Attachment of a secondary bacterial infection with the development of bacterial conjunctivitis.
- Disruption of the production of natural tear fluid - dry eye syndrome.
- The development of keratitis - inflammation of the cornea.
- Complications from other organs: otitis (ear inflammation), tonsillitis (inflammation of the tonsils).
In order to avoid these troubles, promptly consult a doctor if symptoms of adenoviral conjunctivitis appear and follow all instructions for effective treatment exactly.
After recovery, pay attention to general strengthening procedures and prevention of adenoviral conjunctivitis and its other forms in order to prevent re-infection. We invite you to watch an interesting video from Dr. Evdokimenko on improving immunity:
Varieties of adenoviral conjunctivitis
Adenoviral conjunctivitis has several forms of manifestation.
- Catarrhal conjunctivitis. Differs ease flow. Characterized by local inflammation. This type is characterized by slight redness of the mucous membrane of the eye, tearing, partial occlusion of the palpebral fissure. Rarely, the disease lasts more than 7 days. Does not require serious treatment, is not accompanied by complications.
- Follicular form. The main difference is the formation of vesicular inflammation on the loosened mucous membrane of the eye. They are characterized by the plural and arbitrary sizes. Formations resemble capsules with transparent contents. The maximum number of follicles is localized in the transition fold and in the corners of the eyelid. Mucous eyes hyperemic. This form of conjunctivitis is easily confused with trachoma at an early stage. A distinctive feature is nasopharyngitis, chills and other signs of respiratory viral infection.
- Membranous form. It is diagnosed in a quarter of cases of adenoviral conjunctivitis. A distinctive feature is the formation of thin films on the surface of the eye in white or gray. Plates are easy to remove with a cotton swab. In difficult cases, they are a plate tightly connected with an inflamed conjunctiva. When they are removed, damage to the mucous membrane occurs, bleeding is possible. When the membranous form, there is an increased body temperature, general malaise, weakness, chills. The disease lasts about 10 days.
Features of treatment
Conjunctivitis develops in the presence of ENT diseases. For this reason, treatment should be comprehensive and aimed at solving all problems.
- Antihistamines. Designed to relieve swelling of mucous tissues. At children's age Fenistil, Zirtek, Zodak are appointed. As a last resort, Suprastin is allowed.
- Antiviral and immunomodulatory agents. Designed to strengthen the immune system and fight against pathogens of the underlying disease.
- Antibacterial eye drops. In children, the universal remedy is Albucid eye drops. In addition to it, the child is prescribed antiviral eye drops Ophthalmoferon, Poludan, Aktipol, Tobreks. Frequency of use in the first days of the disease is 6 to 8 times. The frequency of use decreases with the treatment of conjunctivitis. Course duration not less than 8-10 days.
- Antiviral ointment. Ointment prescribed in case of severe damage to the eyes. They are laid after the treatment of mucous infusion of chamomile, furatsilina or tea. Ointment lay for the lower eyelid or on its edges. The most well-known drugs Florenal, Tebrofen ointment, Bonafton. It is allowed to use products with a local antibiotic: Erythromycin or Tetracycline ointment. The course of treatment is from 10 to 20 days. Duration is determined by the attending physician.
- Nasal drops. To completely eliminate the recurrence of the disease, it is necessary to treat the respiratory organs. To do this, children are prescribed vasoconstrictor drugs to facilitate breathing. From birth, Nazol-Beby is used. After that, you need to rinse the nose and drip antibacterial drops. It can be Albucid, Dioxidine, Isofra or Polidex. The drug is prescribed by the ENT doctor depending on the child's age.
In addition to the exact adherence to the treatment regimen for adenoviral conjunctivitis, it is necessary to create special conditions for the patient and the people around him.
- Separate room. A sick child must be in a separate room. This is due to the high degree of infectiousness of the disease. The room should be aired regularly. In case of a painful reaction to sunlight, it is recommended to shade the windows with curtains.
- Individual toilet articles and bedding. Patients should be provided with their own towels, soap, linens and dishes.
- Hands should be thoroughly washed before and after contact with the patient and during medical manipulations. This will avoid infection of other family members and eliminate the introduction of additional infections.
- During eye treatment, change cotton swabs regularly. One swab can not wipe the eyes twice. Handkerchiefs are to be boiled.
Forecast of the development and prevention of the disease
Adenoviral conjunctivitis is not a disease with serious consequences. With timely diagnosis and use of antibacterial drugs, improvement occurs in 4-7 days. In the case of an uncomplicated form, a cure is possible without the use of medications, while respecting the rules of personal hygiene. In a complicated case, it is possible to extend treatment for up to 1 month. Relapses occur rarely.
To prevent the disease, it is important to strengthen the immune system, take vitamin complexes. In the cold and flu season, the use of immunomodulatory drugs is allowed. Special attention should be paid to personal hygiene and the environment. It is important to regularly ventilate the room. Hands should be washed after each visit to the street and contact with animals. In the period of exacerbation of respiratory viral infections, special attention should be paid to the treatment of ENT diseases.
At the first signs of eye redness, it is recommended to wipe the eyes with a solution of chamomile, calendula, furatsilina or manganese in a weak concentration.
May 11, 2017Anastasia Graudina
Adenoviral conjunctivitis occurs due to the ingestion of an adult adenovirus of various types. Despite the fact that, at first glance, this disease seems quite harmless, but in fact it is not.
Adenoviruses of the following serotypes become the cause of the development of pathology: 3, 4, 7, 10 and 11. As a rule, conjunctival inflammation precedes any lesion of the upper respiratory tract.
If you do not treat conjunctivitis for a long time, then the lens becomes clouded due to the inflammatory process. Over time, a thorn may form, leading to total blindness.
How does the infection occur?
Infection with adenoviral conjunctivitis occurs through airborne droplets when coughing and sneezing, less often with direct contact of the pathogen on the mucous membrane of the eyes.
The disease begins with pronounced nasopharyngitis and an increase in body temperature. On the second wave of fever, symptoms of conjunctivitis appear first on one eye and after 1-3 days on the other. A scanty transparent mucous discharge appears. The conjunctiva of the eyelids and transitional folds is hyperemic, edematous, with more or less follicular reaction and with the formation of easily removable films on the conjunctiva of the eyelids (usually in children). Regional lymph nodes are increasing. The sensitivity of the cornea is reduced.
How long does adenoviral conjunctivitis last? The phenomena of keratitis usually disappear completely upon recovery, which occurs within 2-4 weeks.
Depending on what are the symptoms, distinguish the following forms of adenoviral conjunctivitis:
- Filmy - differs in the formation of grayish-white films in the area of the eye shell, they are easily removed using cotton swabs. If the film is too tight to the conjunctiva, bleeding may occur when it is removed. At the site of mucosal deformity, scars or small seals are visible, but they quickly dissolve after complete recovery. A severe form of the disease is accompanied by fever, high fever.
- Follicular - this type of inflammation of the conjunctiva is recognized by the numerous vesicular rashes on the loosened eye mucosa. In size, they can be different: large and very small. Visually, these are translucent gelatinous capsules. Especially a lot of follicles cover transitional fold. The follicular form is very similar to trachoma in the initial stage of development. But errors in diagnosis are very rare, since it is not characterized by manifestations of nasopharyngitis and febrile conditions. In addition, tracheal eruptions are located on the conjunctiva of the upper eyelid of the eye.
- Catarrhal - inflammation and redness are insignificant, scanty discharge. The disease is easy, takes about 7 days, there are no complications.
It is important that when the first signs of pathology appear, immediately consult a doctor to diagnose, confirm or refute the diagnosis.
Most often, the treatment of adenoviral conjunctivitis is performed using the following drugs:
- Tebrofen Antiviral drug. Available in the form of drops or eye ointment.
- Floksal. The basis of the drug is an antimicrobial ofloxacin.
- Albucid Broad spectrum eye antimicrobial drops.
- Interferon Immunomodulating antiviral agent.
- Tobrex. Antimicrobial drops. Can be used from the first days of a child's life.
- Poludan. Drug, stimulating the production of interferon.
- Florenal. Designed to neutralize the virus. Especially effective against Herpessimplex.
- Vitabact. The drug with aseptic properties. Can be used in infants.
The treatment is carried out under strict medical supervision. Incorrectly chosen means can only worsen the situation.
Adenoviral conjunctivitis - what is it?
The defeat of the mucous membranes of the eyes by adenoviruses - faringo-conjunctival fever, often develops against the background of acute respiratory infections. Adenoviruses get into the eyes with dirty hands, when sneezing and coughing an infected person.
Important! Read more about how conjunctivitis is transmitted.
- contact with an infected person
- long stay in the cold
- bruised eyes
- non-compliance with hygiene rules.
Adenoviral conjunctivitis develops with improper care of contact lenses, against the background of frequent stress. Provokes the development of the disease SARS and ophthalmic surgery.
How is the disease manifested
How long is the incubation period? From the moment the virus enters the body until the first clinical signs appear, 3–10 days pass.
Important! How conjunctivitis occurs during pregnancy, you can learn from our article.
- fever, fever,
- pharyngitis, rhinitis,
- enlarged submandibular and parotid lymph nodes
- complete or partial swelling of the eye, tearing, itching, burning,
- the inflamed organ turns red, the person has photophobia.
Acute adenoviral conjunctivitis affects one eye, after a few days the inflammatory process spreads to both eyes.
In the catarrhal form of the disease, the inflammatory process and other symptoms of the conjunctiva are mild, complications are rare, inflammation disappears after a week.
For the follicular form is characterized by a special rash on the mucous in the form of bubbles.
Important! The follicular form of conjunctivitis is sometimes confused with trachoma (mucous eye damage by chlamydia). Trichome bubbles are localized on the upper eyelid. In conjunctivitis, rash accumulates in the transitional fold of the eyelid.
In 25% of cases, a filmy type of viral eye disease is diagnosed. Gray or white thin films appear that are easily removed during washing. The inflammatory process is characterized by high temperature for 7–10 days. In the absence of timely treatment, scars can form on the mucous membrane.
Adenoviral conjunctivitis in children
Adenoviral conjunctivitis is transmitted by airborne droplets, so there are often outbreaks of epidemics in kindergartens, an exacerbation of the disease occurs in spring and autumn.
Children are most often diagnosed with a membranous form of viral eye damage, so at the first signs of inflammation you need to show the child to the doctor. The disease can occur in severe form - the child complains about the presence of foreign objects in the eye, tears constantly flow from him, the baby does not tolerate bright light.
Important! Find out which doctor treats conjunctivitis.
For the treatment of adenoviral eye inflammation in children, the place of interferon preparations is not used. To strengthen the immunity and eliminate the virus, rectal suppository Viferon is used, which contains interferon.
- Tobrex - antimicrobial drops that can be used for children from the first day of life,
- Vitabact - antiseptic drops, which are allowed to use for the treatment of children of any age.
Important! Treatment of viral conjunctivitis in children should be carried out under the constant supervision of the attending physician. Self-medication can lead to serious complications.
Antiviral drugs are instilled the first week 8 times a day, 2-3 days is enough for the following days. Complex forms of the disease require long-term treatment - 3-4 weeks. If all the recommendations of the doctor are observed, there is practically no recurrence of the disease.
For the diagnosis of viral damage to the eyes, various types of laboratory and serological studies are used. Be sure to conduct bacteriological analysis of smear from the conjunctiva. PCR allows you to detect the DNA of adenoviruses in the body.
Using ELISA detect the presence of specific antibodies in the serum. An increase in the range of 4 times confirms the diagnosis of adenoviral eye inflammation.
The duration of treatment in adults is 14 days. Among the consequences of adenoviral conjunctivitis most often diagnosed dry eye syndrome, keratitis, otitis media, tonsillitis.
Important! In therapy, an integrated approach is used, because there is no drug that sighting destroys adenoviruses.
Effective drops for the treatment of viral eye disease:
- Albucidum - a medicine with a wide spectrum of action, effectively destroys pathogenic microorganisms,
- Poludan is an antiviral drug that promotes the production of interferons,
- Floksal - drops contain ofloxacin, have a powerful antimicrobial effect.
Important! More information about the treatment of conjunctivitis at home, read here.
Interferon is a medicinal product in the form of a powder from which an eye wash solution is prepared. It has antiviral and immunomodulatory effects.
On the night of the eyelids, you need to lay the ointment, which have an antiviral effect - bonaftonovoy, florenale.
Treatment of folk remedies
In folk medicine for the treatment of conjunctivitis use herbal solutions for washing the eyes, drinks that strengthen the immune system, aromatherapy.
Important! Unconventional methods can be used as an aid. But without antibacterial and antiviral drugs, treatment will be ineffective.
How to treat conjunctivitis with odors? Eucalyptus essential oil will help to get rid of the disease quickly and easily. It can be poured into the aroma lamp, or just leave the open bottle in the room.
You can also be treated with garlic, chop several heads, put on a saucer, change the gruel as the smell disappears. This method will help not only to cure conjunctivitis, but also refers to powerful preventive measures against colds.
Important! Details about the treatment of viral conjunctivitis at home, we have already written.
Infusion inflorescences cherry has a strong antibacterial effect, it is used for washing the eyes. Pour 220 ml of cold water 3 g of crushed flowers, leave overnight.
Yarrow will help get rid of eye swelling, eliminate itching and inflammation. Boil 520 ml of boiling water of 6 g of crushed inflorescences of a plant, stew the mixture on a low heat for a quarter of an hour, leave in a sealed container for an hour. Wash the eyes with filtered solution 6–8 times a day. Instead of yarrow, you can use chamomile, or prepare a collection of an equal amount of each plant.
Dill is successfully used to treat many eye diseases. Boil 230 ml of boiling water 5 g of seeds or dill herb, warm in a water bath for 5 minutes, leave for half an hour, filter. Rinse with decoction of the eye every 3 hours until the complete elimination of all signs of the disease.
Adenoviral conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the mucous membranes of the eyes. Compliance with the rules of hygiene, hardening, strengthening the immune system helps to protect against this viral disease.