- Published June 3, 2018 November 13, 2018
- 4 minutes to read
Under the cyst in the medical literature refers to a multi-chamber tumor that develops in the upper part of the bladder with distribution in the extraperitoneal space. This pathology can be observed in both men and women, regardless of the person's age. Often are cases of detection of cyst in infants.
According to statistics, this disease is diagnosed three times more often in males. Specialists associate the danger of pathology with the risk of rupture of an existing neoplasm at any moment.
Modern medicine has not yet managed to express an unequivocal opinion regarding the factors contributing to the development of a bladder cyst in the human body. However, most experts are unanimous in saying that the main cause of the disease is disorders during the embryonic formation of organs.
The cyst is located in the bladder duct. Therefore, this pathology is often called the “urachus cyst”.
Urachus is the formation of a tubular structure in the fetus that connects the top of the bladder and the navel.
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Until the fifth month of pregnancy, this duct plays an important role in the development of the fetus. After this, there are changes in which its walls close, and the duct itself closes. The circumstances are natural under which urachus must be completely closed.
But sometimes an anomaly occurs, and only the ends of the duct remain closed, and a void is formed in its middle part. This fact provokes further cyst formation.
Often the existing cavity begins to fill with primary urine, feces, mucus and exudate. The cyst takes the form of a closed bag containing the above-mentioned masses. In cases of the formation of a fistulous passage, the liquid can go out through the hole in the navel.
Bladder cyst for a long time has a small size. However, when pathogenic bacteria enter it, it increases to 15 cm in diameter.
In the state of incubation period, the cyst does not cause inconvenience to the patient and is not detected by the doctors during the examination. In the case of an inflammatory process and an increase in its size, a rounded seal is groped with a rounded shape in the navel.
The most common bladder cyst symptoms are:
- Suppuration wounds and its long healing in the presence of the fistulous course in babies.
- Feeling the pains in the lower abdomen. Unpleasant sensations can be both constant and in the form of sharp attacks, repeated after a certain period of time. Symptoms are similar to other diseases of the genitourinary system. Pain increases with the development of the inflammatory process.
- Problems in time urination. There are frequent urges, but the patient is unable to correct the need. This process is accompanied by pain and severe pain.
- Constipation, bloating, flatulence and gas formation. Disruption of the digestive system due to the pressure on the intestine from the cyst.
- Sharp deterioration state of health with a decrease in immunity and the occurrence of a secondary infection. During this period, the patient has a general weakness, fever, lack of appetite. In women, swelling in the pelvic region can be diagnosed.
- Umbilical fistula in adult patients, it becomes the site of purulent mass. Usually, the fluid appears when pressing on the stomach or tension of the abdominal muscles.
- Blood discharge in urine in case of hemorrhage in the bladder.
With advanced stages of the disease, patients are diagnosed with signs of "acute abdomen." An increase in the abdominal cavity and its seal. In acute attacks, urgent surgical intervention is required.
Thanks to the apparatus used, the location of the cyst, its structure, as well as the detection of fistulous passages can be determined on the monitor screen.
In addition to instrumental methods of examination, the attending physician may also prescribe:
- Uroflowmetry in order to determine the strength of the jet during urination. Abnormalities will indicate problems with the urea or urinary tract.
- Excretory urography, which will help give an estimate of urine stasis.
- Laboratory urine analysis for the possible detection of red blood cells, white blood cells, salts, microorganisms, or elevated protein content.
In addition, a complete blood count will indicate the development of an inflammatory process in the body.
The use of drugs and physiotherapy is considered ineffective in the treatment of bladder cysts. There is only one way to get rid of the pathological formation - removal by surgery.
In the absence of suppurations and other types of complications, the excision of a cyst belongs to simple types of surgery and is carried out even to newborns.
In the case of inflammatory processes, fistula formation and suppuration of adjacent tissues, surgical intervention is not carried out until these symptoms are completely eliminated. During this period, a course of antibiotics is prescribed, and the navel area treated with antiseptic agents.
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If an operation is performed in the presence of inflammation, the risk of the spread of bacteria to other organs and tissues increases.
Cavitary Cyst surgery requires general anesthesia. A scalpel is used to cut tissue. Pathological formation is cut off from the bladder and navel. The tissue of the extracted cyst is sent to the laboratory for histological examination in order to exclude a cancerous tumor. For the outflow of exudate are installed drainage tubes.
If the cyst capsule is intact and there is no purulent discharge, the doctor decides laparoscopic operations. For this, two punctures are made in the abdominal cavity and special instruments with a video camera are inserted. The advantage of this method is the quick recovery of the patient and the reduction of the risk of complications.
In the case of an abscess and rupture of the capsule, the cavity is opened and outflow of pus is provided. The peritoneum is treated with antibacterial drugs. In order to avoid blood poisoning, it is prescribed to take strong antibiotics.
Complications and prognosis
In newborns without complications, doctors recommend waiting for the cavity to close to 1.5 years. However, the child must be under the control of a pediatrician.
Active signs of a bladder cyst are manifested only when it is expansion, clamping of adjacent organs or in the inflammatory process. A high risk is borne by infection of the kidney infection and the further development of pyelonephritis, which, if delayed treatment leads to renal failure.
With a timely diagnosis and surgery (especially laparaskopicheskoy), the chances of complete recovery from the patient is very high. In the case of emergency surgery, caused by rupture of the sac, an abscess or peritonitis increases the risk to the health and life of the patient.
What are bladder cysts?
Symptoms of bladder cysts include urge to urinate, excessive urination at night, and pain during urination.
A cyst is a sheath of tissue that is internally filled with gases, a liquid or semi-solid substance. Cysts can appear in any area of the body, both inside the body and outside. Bladder cysts most often occur in the mucous membrane of the organ.
They are relatively rarely formed in people whose urinary system functions normally. Such cysts usually have a small size, non-cancerous nature and go unnoticed. As a rule, they are detected when doctors examine other problems of the pelvic cavity.
Cyst in the bladder can cause the same symptoms as polyps. The latter appear as a result of abnormal cell growth and, unlike cysts, do not have other materials inside. Polyps can be both benign and cancerous.
Bladder Cysts and Cancer
In most cases, bladder cysts have a benign origin, that is, they are not cancerous.
The doctor must determine whether a new formation is a cyst or tumor. Much more often tumors are associated with cancer.
If the formation begins to grow rapidly or indicates other symptoms of cancer, the doctor may conduct additional diagnostic procedures and prescribe appropriate treatment.
American doctors believe that chronic infections or irritation of the bladder increase the risk of developing cancer. If a person has such a problem, he needs to discuss it with a doctor, who will give recommendations on reducing risk factors and will be able to ensure regular monitoring of the patient’s condition.
Symptoms of bladder cysts
Most bladder cysts do not cause symptoms. Usually, people begin to see symptoms when cysts grow too large or break and become infected. The conditions that underlie the appearance of cysts can cause comorbid symptoms.
If symptoms occur, they may include the following:
- pain while urinating,
- blood or colored streaks in the urine,
- pain when urinating,
- continuing urge to urinate,
- inability to control the bladder, that is, incontinence,
- excessive urine at night,
- lower back pain or pelvic,
- unpleasant or sour urine odor.
Similar problems in humans can occur if there are other problems with the bladder, such as kidney stones or urinary tract infections (UTIs).
These symptoms may also be due to interstitial cystitis, a chronic disease of the bladder, the causes of which are currently not established. This condition leads to severe pain during urination and frequent urination, which can occur in humans every ten minutes.
Some people with interstitial cystitis feel increased pain when the bladder is full and emptying is usually accompanied by relief. In addition, sometimes pain occurs during sexual contact (dyspareunia), and this symptom is rarely seen in bladder cysts.
Careful diagnosis of bladder diseases is critical to successful treatment and to reduce the risk of potential complications.
Diagnosis of bladder cysts
The doctor will begin to diagnose bladder cysts with questions about the symptoms. In addition, he will examine the patient’s medical history in detail and inquire about family medical history. The specialist will also ask you to take a urine sample for analysis.
The correct diagnosis is of extreme importance, because only in this case the patient will be able to receive the correct treatment and avoid serious consequences.
Doctors often detect bladder cysts when they perform visualized diagnostic procedures to investigate other medical conditions in the pelvic cavity. If the therapist suspects a patient with a cyst, he can send him for a visit to the urologist.
Bladder cysts can be diagnosed by the following methods.
Visual Diagnostic Techniques
Computed tomography can be used to diagnose bladder cysts
Thanks to the different equipment, the doctor can see the internal cavity of the bladder and recognize any cyst. The methods of visualized diagnostics include the following:
- x-ray and computed tomographythat use irradiation to create images of internal organs,
- ultrasound procedurein which sound waves are applied to obtain images of internal organs,
- Magnetic resonance imaging, which involves the use of radio frequency and magnetic field for detailed images.
The method of visualized diagnosis is selected depending on the available equipment and the disease that is suspected in the patient.
This procedure allows the doctor to look inside the bladder and examine existing cysts. To do this, a tiny chamber is inserted through the urethra into the bladder.
Cystoscopy can be performed under local, regional or general anesthesia.
A biopsy involves taking a sample of a cyst tissue for further research on its malignancy in the laboratory.
The tube containing the chamber and the needle reaches the cyst after passing through the urethra. This procedure usually lasts no longer than an hour.
Causes of cyst formation in the bladder
Bladder cysts can be caused by several known factors, but sometimes they arise for unknown reasons. The doctor can be sure of a certain reason, or assume that a number of problems could lead to a cyst.
The following factors may increase the risk of bladder cysts in a person:
- use of a catheter,
- history of bladder operations,
- a history of kidney stones or bladder stones,
- frequent urinary tract infections.
Bladder cysts can be caused by a rare condition called cystic cystitis. It is characterized by persistent inflammation of the urinary tract, the possible causes of which are irritation of the bladder or bacteria in its cavity.
Bladder cyst treatment
Large cysts sometimes require surgical removal.
The vast majority of bladder cysts are small and asymptomatic. They do not always require treatment.
When cysts cause symptoms and require treatment, the doctor may choose one of several therapeutic options. In particular, he may recommend the discharge of a small cyst.
For cysts of more substantial size, as well as for those that have been torn or infected, the doctor may recommend surgical removal.
Treatment may also involve dealing with any associated complications, such as UTI.
Complications of bladder cysts
Bladder cysts usually pass without serious consequences. However, in some cases, the following complications can occur.
- Full lock. Cysts can grow on top of the bladder opening and thus completely block the flow of urine. If this condition occurs, it can seriously threaten the health, so in such situations, patients are advised to go for surgery.
- Gap. The cyst may rupture or release its fluid into the bladder cavity. Sometimes this leads to additional symptoms and infections.
- Infections. Infectious diseases can lead to serious consequences in several parts of the urinary tract. Therefore, when an infection is detected, it is necessary to start treating it as soon as possible.
Bladder cysts are usually benign, and many people do not even notice them. These formations can cause complications, so the doctor needs to check them regularly and make an examination to identify cancer cells.
If a person has bladder cyst symptoms or is often suffering from urinary tract infections, he should visit the hospital to see a doctor’s health condition. Early diagnosis and immediate treatment will help to quickly eliminate the suffering of the body and calm the mind.
What it is?
Bladder cyst is a consequence of incomplete fusion of urachus (urinary duct). It is a compound of the upper part of the bladder and the navel. This anatomical segment is formed during embryonic development. It performs an important function - through it, the urine of the fetus is displayed in the amniotic fluid (amniotic fluid).
In a healthy child, the duct grows completely. But in some cases, under the influence of adverse factors, the urachus of the embryo partially closes or this does not occur at all. Then a cavity forms between the navel and the upper portion of the bladder. Inside it, accumulation of urine and feces occurs. This cavity is identified in urology as a bladder cyst. In newborns, it is visible when external examination of the umbilical wound. It has the shape of a bubble filled with translucent content.
If, at birth, children do not notice a neoplasm - as they grow older, it increases, sometimes it reaches 15-16 cm in diameter.
In men and women causes a number of violations of the functional ability of the intestine, bladder. In particular, pain in the abdomen, urination disorder, constipation. In women, the cyst is manifested by pain during intimacy (due to compression of the uterus by the tumor).
The risk of neoplasm is the risk of infection of the abdominal cavity. This condition can be fatal and involves surgery.
The disease is able to occur due to impaired fetal development, which is preceded by:
- The defeat of a pregnant woman with infections of various origins.
- Nervous tension, difficult psycho-emotional situation in the family.
- Heavy physical labor.
- Smoking, drinking alcohol during gestation
Predisposing factors - reduced immunity, trauma to the pelvic organs.
Each symptom is of diagnostic value in the matter of pathology differentiation. Even if you managed to stop a certain symptom before the visit to the doctor (to reduce the temperature, to eliminate the pain), you should also inform the specialist about it.
Manifestations of a bladder cyst:
- Dysuria. Urination disorder is manifested by the appearance of increased urge, discomfort during and after urination. The volume of urine is different from the usual amount - does not reach or exceed it. Regardless of the frequency of urge, urine shade changes - it becomes lighter, characterized by the presence of streaks of blood.
- Pain syndrome. An unpleasant sensation is localized in the suprapubic region, the lumbosacral region of the back. Pain persists for some time after urination, during intimacy and after it. If the pathology has reached the third or more stage, an unpleasant sensation accompanies physical activity.
- Increased body temperature against chills. It indicates the presence of intoxication - when the tumor is burdened by the infectious process. The phenomenon is preceded by the entry of pathogenic microflora in the bladder. The condition is identified as cystitis.
- Constipation. Violation of the process of defecation is observed in cases where the development of a cyst progresses and the tumor has reached a considerable size. The cause of constipation is the anatomical features of the relative position of the bladder and rectum. The proliferation of tumors leads to compression of this part of the digestive tract, complicates the likelihood of evacuation of fecal masses. Accompanying signs - abdominal distention due to the accumulation of intestinal gases, the tension of the anterior abdominal wall.
Cystic neoplasm is manifested by urinary incontinence. Trouble leads to psychological problems, negatively affects the quality of life and self-esteem.
Conservative treatment does not affect the presence of cystic neoplasm - it is surgically removed. By means of medications, they eliminate the complications of the tumor (if it has opened, and the purulent contents have spread inside the abdominal cavity).
Drug therapy involves:
- The use of antibiotics. Intravenous or intramuscular administration of Ceftriaxone, Ceftazidime is prescribed. The purpose of the prescription is to suppress the pathogen. Contraindications - severe liver and kidney disease, drug intolerance, pregnancy.
- The use of uroseptikov. Drugs in this group stop urination problems, destroy pathogens circulating in the urogenital tract. As a result, the process of excretion of urine is normalized - it occurs without pain, burning. Apply Furazolidone (the same drug may be called Furadonin), 5-NOK, Nifuratel. Contraindications - diseases of the liver, kidneys, stomach, idiosyncrasy, pregnancy, lactation.
- Detoxification treatment. Allows you to eliminate the condition caused by the presence of pathogens in the body. Prescribed intravenous Metrogil, Reosorbilakta, saline.
Strengthening the immune capacity of the body is carried out by immunomodulators and vitamin therapy. To reduce pain, analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used (contraindications - diseases of the stomach).
From the number of surgical treatment to the method of choice is laparoscopic removal of a cyst of the bladder. It involves the performance of several punctures in the abdominal cavity. A special instrument equipped with a microscopic camera is placed inside. The cyst is excised, the site of its localization is cleared of pathological contents, then sutures and a sterile dressing are placed on the wound.
Attention! Surgical treatment is carried out only if there is no acute inflammatory process.
Other contraindications for surgery are pregnancy, heart and blood vessel diseases, problems with blood clotting. The advantages of laparoscopic intervention are the rapid recovery of the body, the possibility of local anesthesia, the low risk of developing complications.
Decoctions and infusions help to stop inflammation, the development of which is accompanied by cystic formation:
- Recipe number 1
Take 1 tbsp. l Dry raw Hypericum, Calendula and Chamomile. Pour 1 liter of boiling water, insist 15-20 minutes, use as tea. The effect is the elimination of the inflammatory process inside the bladder.
- Recipe number 2
Grind through a blender 1 kg of cranberries. Stir until smooth, drink fruit drink during the day, 10 days in a row. Effect - elimination of pain during urination, normalization of body temperature. Regular consumption of cranberry juice relieves the feeling of an insufficiently empty bladder.
- Recipe number 3
Broth parsley root. 2 tbsp. l Parsley root pour in 1 l of cold water, cook on low heat for 10 minutes. Cool, use 100 ml 2 p. in a day. Effect - the normalization of urine, preventing the development of edema. The recipe is more relevant for men, in women the tone of the uterus increases, so the decoction is not suitable during pregnancy.
- Recipe number 4
To normalize digestion and ease well-being with constipation, you should use tomato juice (250 ml) with the addition of 2 tbsp. l vegetable oil. You can apply daily, the duration of the course - from 3 to 14 days (depending on the frequency of development of problems with defecation). The effect is a painless evacuation of fecal masses, which is especially important for a large-sized cyst. Preferably, the tomato juice was made at home.
The result of treatment with folk remedies - urination becomes painless, digestion is normalized, general well-being improves.
Experts have established the relationship between the risk of bladder cyst formation and lifestyle.
In order to prevent the appearance of the disease should:
- Monitor personal hygiene (in the presence of discharge from the genital tract, water procedures should be carried out more often).
- Keep an orderly sex life, do not allow casual sex.
- Competently alternate the mode of work and rest.
- If professional activity involves nervous tension - minimize it.
- Do not allow hypothermia.
- During the carrying of the fetus to pay attention to health, to control well-being. Prevent the development of infections of various origins, give up loads, fully rest and eat.
Since a bladder cyst can form during fetal development, it is important for pregnant women to be examined regularly by a gynecologist. If you do not miss the visits planned by a specialist, due to ultrasound increases the likelihood of timely detection of fetal pathology.
Cyst bladder and treatment of folk remedies
The main signs of a cyst are:
- acute pain sensations
- urination disorders
- chills, fever,
- incontinence in the late stages of the disease.
The first time a tumor can manifest itself at any time. A large cyst begins to press against the intestines and bladder, causing constipation or impairment with the emission of urine.
Remarkably treats cystic formations of walnut shells.
Clear 14 pieces of nuts, put the shell in a 0.5 liter jar with alcohol or vodka. To sustain 7 days. Means to eat on an empty stomach and 1 tbsp. l. until it's over
Pour 200 g of shells with 200 ml of water and boil. Then dilute with water at a ratio of 1:10. Broth is used for douching.
Folk recipes from cystic formations
Effective in the treatment of the disease are herbs.
Stir in the same parts of the grass:
- calamus root,
- dog-rose fruit,
Pour 10 g of medicinal drug in a thermos and pour 250 ml of very hot liquid. To sustain the composition of 8 hours. Drink 85 ml three times a day for half an hour before meals. Store in the refrigeration unit no more than 3 days. Duration of therapy is 3 months.
Mix 1 tbsp. l .:
- getting it
- calamus root,
- 1 tsp mint.
Heat the water and pour drug collection. Then put on water vapor for 20 minutes. Let the broth stand for an hour. Drink 0.5 cups half an hour before meals 5 times a day.
To all this, folk healers recommend to use fresh juice from viburnum. Mix in equal portions juice with honey. Drink 5 ml three times before meals. Duration of treatment is 2 months.
Used in the treatment and tincture based on medicinal plants.
For the treatment of the urinary system used an unconventional remedy based on rhizome of burdock. Grind roots mixed with vodka. To sustain the composition of 10 days. Then strain, use 15 ml before meals.
Herb with a powerful toxic effect. Therefore, before using you should consult with your doctor. A common method is the use of tincture. It is recommended to take twice a day before meals, start from 1 drop to 30 drops, gradually increasing the norm. Such a scheme of use is provided for 4 months, then gradually reduce the rate.
The plant is used as an anti inflammatory, diaphoretic, antipyretic and antiseptic. Due to the high concentration of beneficial substances, the cocklebur is popular in the treatment of malignant tumors. Treat the urinary system with tincture or decoction.
The plant is finely cut and mixed with vodka, withstand the composition for several days. Used under the scheme of a hill. The first day is 1 drop, in the second - 2 and so on to 40. After that, lower the rate back. After a full course pause 2 weeks.
A good effect is the treatment of bladder cysts in women folk remedies gives the use of mummy. In 1 liter of liquid, dilute 10 g of mummy and drink 50 ml each in the morning and evening for 20 days. The prepared composition is stored in the refrigeration unit for no more than 10 days. Treat three times a year with a 10-day pause.
Causes of formation
Experts believe that the cause of the appearance of an abnormal cavity is a malformation of the urinary system of the fetus, and the urachus cyst is a residual germ structure. The embryonic urinary canal connects the bladder of the future newborn with the amniotic fluid and is necessary for the discharge of urine secreted by the embryo.
In the embryo, the urinary duct is only partially closed and usually grows completely by the 20-24th week of gestation. If by this time there is an incomplete fusion of urachus, that is, the ends of the duct are closed, and the lumen remains in the middle part, then a cavity is formed in this place, where urine, mucus and meconium (fetal feces) accumulate.
In a healthy newborn, instead of urachus, a completely overgrown cord is formed - the median umbilical cord, which stretches from the umbilical ring to the upper part of the bladder.
Symptoms of Urachus Cyst
A cyst in the bladder, if it is not infected, may remain unchanged in size for a very long time and not manifest itself, being detected during a diagnostic examination in adulthood.
Symptoms are largely dependent on the structure and time of infection of the cyst. Symptoms of suppuration may appear immediately after the birth of the baby or in adulthood, or never occur.
As long as the formation is sterile - that is, microorganisms have not penetrated into it, it does not pose a threat to health and practically does not grow. But when bacteria hit, an inflammation of the cyst and adjacent tissues occurs, and then the signs of its existence become more obvious and pronounced.
The penetration of bacteria usually occurs in two ways:
- Through the fistula or fistula - a thin hollow canal that connects the cavity of the cyst with the navel.
- From the bladder. If the cystic cavity is not isolated, but connects to the bladder, the microbial flora is able to penetrate into it if there is an infection in the urinary system.
- In the period of carrying a baby. The growing uterus compresses the cyst, the bladder, which can provoke inflammation.
The inflamed formation begins to increase in size, sometimes growing to 150 mm, and causes the following symptoms:
- A large urachus cyst is palpable below the navel, as a tight-elastic formation, painful in the presence of inflammation.
- The increase in size leads to compression of the ureters, bladder, stomach and intestines. This causes the appearance of pulling pains, which patients confuse with the pains of cystitis, menstruation, intestinal cramps, and stomach pains.
- There are constipation, problems with urination, bloating, increased gas formation, belching. When gastric dislocation can develop gastroesophageal reflux, in which food and hydrochloric acid is thrown back into the esophagus, causing inflammation.
Cyst of the bladder in men additionally provokes:
- difficult or painful urination,
- partial incontinence,
- incomplete release of the bladder and stagnation of urine, which leads to inflammation in the urethra, the development of strictures (contractions).
Cyst of the bladder of women due to the close localization to the ovaries, can disrupt the menstrual cycle, cause pain with monthly bleeding. During pregnancy, the displacement of the uterus by a growing cyst can provoke hypertonicity of the organ, early opening of the cervix, insufficient blood supply to the fetus.
There are certain symptoms of urachus cyst in babies, if the cavity is not closed, but communicates with the navel through a fistula. In such cases, parents observe the following symptoms:
- the umbilical wound in babies does not heal for a long time, bleeds, gets wet, swells due to urine and meconium accumulated in the cyst,
- liquid mucous secretions or urine go out through the umbilical cord,
- the surrounding skin is constantly irritated and red,
- the baby sleeps poorly, more often regurgitates, lags behind in development.
Urachus cyst in children born with an already formed fistulous canal becomes very dangerous with inflammation, as pyogenic bacteria easily penetrate the cavity through the fistula, causing suppuration.
Is drug treatment effective?
Despite the widespread development of medical technology, drug therapy and physiotherapy are not able to help with the formed cavity in the embryonic urinary duct. To completely cure urachus cyst with the help of home medicine, folk remedies and methods.
The only radical method, that is, the method that allows you to completely and permanently eliminate the abnormal growth, is the removal by surgery.
Symptoms and treatment of bladder cysts are closely related, as the symptoms indicate a different course of the disease.
Ways to remove an uncomplicated bladder cyst
If there is no suppuration and other complications, the removal of the urachus cyst with the help of the operation is not difficult and is performed not only in adults but also in infants. But in children, with an incomplete closure of the embryonic duct, they try to adhere to the waiting tactics (if there are no signs of inflammation, since sometimes the duct is blocked independently until the age of 12-15 months).
With symptoms of inflammation or suppuration of surrounding tissues, formation of an umbilical or cystic fistula, symptoms of omphalitis in an infant, the operation is not performed until the inflammatory process is suppressed.
Prescribe a course of antibiotic medications, antiseptic treatment of the navel, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ultraviolet radiation. After subsiding of the inflammatory phenomena, surgical removal of the bladder cyst is permitted.
If the operation is carried out without eliminating the inflammation of the surrounding tissues, the risk of peritonitis (acute bacterial inflammation of the peritoneum) and urosepsis (the life-threatening spread of infection from the urinary system to all organs and tissues) is high.
The technique of abdominal surgery (laparotomy) for a urachus cyst provides for general anesthesia. The tissue is dissected with a scalpel, the cystic capsule is carefully separated from the adjacent tissues, the peritoneum, the intestinal loop, cut off from the navel and bladder. Be sure to put the drainage tube for the outflow of inflammatory exudate. Deleted tissues are sent for histology to rule out the cancer process.
If the capsule is whole, without pus, laparoscopy is often done using endoscopic equipment under the constant control of a video camera. A laparoscopy of the bladder cyst does not require a surgical incision - all the manipulations are carried out by a doctor using microtools that are inserted into the abdominal cavity through a pair of medical ports - tiny punctures into the tissue.
Key advantages of laparoscopy of urachus cyst before abdominal surgery:
- use of local anesthesia or mild short-term general anesthesia,
- fast recovery
- minimum of complications.
Лапароскопия проводится, только если подтверждено отсутствие острого воспаления.
After abdominal surgery, the patient recovers within 10 to 20 days. During laparoscopy, tissue regeneration is observed by days 7–9.
Removal of complicated urachus cyst
Routine removal of a non-inflammatory cyst is performed only if no complications are observed that carry a threat to the life of the patient.
If an abscess, rupture of the capsule, and peritonitis develops, then the operation to excise the festering tissues and cystic cavity becomes the only way to save the patient's life.
In acute conditions it is very dangerous to take painkillers and antibiotics on your own. Such home treatment will not help with the purulent process, but will only worsen the situation and can quickly lead to the death of the patient from blood poisoning and bacterial shock.
With an abscess, it is necessary to immediately open and drain the purulent abscess cavity - to ensure active outflow of pus to the outside. At the same time, an intensive treatment of the peritoneum with disinfecting and antibacterial solutions is carried out. Immediately appoint a combination of strong antibiotic medications to avoid blood poisoning. And only after the complete elimination of the symptoms of inflammation, an operation is performed to excise the cystic capsule of Urachus itself.
Complications of purulent processes in the bladder cyst are life threatening. Therefore, when the first symptoms of suppuration or rupture appear - acute pain, fever, nausea - the treatment should be started as soon as possible.
In infants, in the absence of omphalitis, pediatricians often predict independent closure of the cavity in the urinary duct to one and a half years. However, you should carefully monitor the changes in the region of the umbilical ring, so as not to miss the complications.
An adult patient, knowing about the symptomatology of complications, is obliged to reduce the risk of severe consequences to a minimum, having passed diagnostic measures and examination by a surgeon and urologist in time. A planned operation to remove a urachus cyst, especially laparoscopy, almost 100% guarantees recovery. When conducting emergency surgery caused by a rupture of education, an abscess, peritonitis, the risks to health and life are much greater.
Types of pathology
Urachus is a part of the urinary, so its cystic formation is often called a bladder cyst.
The excretory urinary duct of the embryo allows you to display all the discharge of the fetus in the amniotic fluid. Normal fetal development causes urachus to fade by 5 months of gestation. In place of the overgrown duct appears the middle umbilical cord.
Formed in the embryonic period, the pathology can be revealed at any stage of life: the urachus cyst appears in children and adult patients.
Anomaly is divided into the following types:
- Closed type. The pathology of this species is characterized by a closed cystic capsule with a liquid, without the formation of a fistula,
- Open (umbilical, vesicular-umbilical cyst). This species involves the formation of a fistula, with the result that embryonic biological fluids that fall on the walls of the abdomen, irritate its surface. Through the fistula in the abdominal cavity not only embryonic secretions, but also various harmful microbes enter, which can lead to the emergence of the pathoprocess.
Causes of pathology
Experts cannot reliably determine the root cause of pathology. A number of specialists are inclined to believe that the cause of urachus cysts in men, women, and children is anomalous intrauterine development.
In the duct inflammation may occur due to:
- Umbilical fistula (hole). This pathology is caused by a failure of the part of the duct closest to the navel. In this case, urine is excreted in the umbilical region, causing its regular irritation. Pathogenic microorganisms can penetrate through the opening, triggering an infectious-inflammatory process,
- Infection of duct pathogenic bacteria from the bladder. This situation occurs when organ lesions are infections of the genitourinary system,
- The inflammatory process may occur during childbirth. The growing uterus can squeeze the bladder than cause inflammation.
According to the observations of experts, urachus cyst in women is 3 times less common than in the male population. Cystic formation may not manifest itself for a long time, not grow in size. Hidden dynamics of pathology often allows to detect it in adulthood.
Diagnosis of urachus cyst
When examining a urologist, a large cystic formation is determined by palpation of the anterior abdominal wall.
To confirm the diagnosis of "urachus cyst" code according to MKB 10, the doctor prescribes laboratory and instrumental examination methods:
- MRI, CT, allowing to determine the message of the cystic capsule with other organs,
- Ultrasound procedure. Urachus cyst on ultrasound can be clearly seen, you can determine the location and size of the education,
- Cystographic examination, which is used to determine the condition of the bladder, the presence of cystic formation in its cavity, structural changes in the organ,
- Cystoscopy. The procedure helps to examine in detail the mucous membrane of the bladder, allows you to diagnose inflammatory processes, structural abnormalities, damage to the walls of the organ. Qualitatively determined tumors.
After eliminating the inflammation of the cystic cavity, fistulography can be performed. The procedure is carried out in the presence of fistula and allows you to track their progress. In cases where the patient enters with a "sharp abdomen" (swollen and hardened abdominal cavity), laparotomy, laparoscopy is performed.
When the diagnosis is confirmed, the operation of urachus cyst is scheduled for the very near future. This is necessary to prevent serious complications and consequences.
Urakhust cyst treatment
The pathology is not eliminated by conservative therapy, surgical intervention, removal of cystic formation is necessary.
In babies, surgery to remove the urachus is performed with complete non-incision of the duct, when the urachus is completely excised. The procedure is carried out in the first days of the life of the newborn.
When the lumen of the channel is partially closed, surgery is not carried out, since self-healing of the anomaly is possible. To prevent the penetration of the infection, the navel area is smeared with a solution of brilliant green daily. The procedure is carried out after bathing the baby.
The classical therapeutic direction is used before surgery to eliminate the inflammatory process and normalize the patient’s condition.
Preoperative treatment of cysts in the bladder in men, women and young patients combines:
- Anti-inflammatory nonsteroid drugs (NSAIDs),
- Antibacterial agents,
- Preparations for local use (gels, ointments).
At the end of the classical therapy, examinations are carried out confirming the absence of inflammatory processes. An operation is prescribed, the rejection of which can lead to serious complications (abscesses, omphalitis).
Surgery is performed under local anesthesia. The surgeon opens the cavity, removes its contents, drainage is carried out. When the inflammatory process spreads to nearby tissues, they are also removed. If a fistula forms, it is removed along with the navel. After excision of the cystic cavity, the wound bed is sutured, a bandage is applied to the suture.
The postoperative period lasts about 3 weeks. During recovery, it is necessary to take healing, anti-inflammatory drugs, to improve the tissue postoperative regeneration.
After removal of the urachus cyst, the patient should avoid physical exertion, it is impossible to lift weights. The entire rehabilitation period, the patient must adhere to bed rest, relax as much as possible, move as little as possible.
Such a neoplasm is detected quite rarely. With a small size, a person can not guess its existence. However, it can grow to 15 cm in diameter.
Treatment is prescribed only by a specialist, as during the self-treatment a person’s condition can be aggravated.
With modern diagnostic methods to identify it is not difficult. After this, the necessary therapy is prescribed.
The cyst may have a fistula or be closed. From here the following varieties are derived:
- with the umbilical fistula - through the fistula, the liquid from the capsule goes into the navel, which provokes its irritation,
- with bladder-umbilical fistula - in this case, the contents of the bladder enter the navel,
- A cyst without a fistula is a closed capsule filled with mucous secretions.
Localized in the urinary duct - urachus. Doctors do not have an accurate theory of the cause of the appearance of a cyst, so preventive measures cannot be determined. However, there is a theory that it is formed in the period of fetal development.
Up to 5 months, the urinary duct plays an important role in the development of the fetus. After 5 months, changes occur and the walls of the bladder gradually grow together.
Normally, its walls should be tightly closed. However, when anomalies appear, only the ends close, and the middle does not close. This is what causes cyst formation.
At first it has a small size, but under the influence of bacteria or infections increases. Despite the fact that medicine is developed quite well, the true reason can not be found. Therefore, doctors adhere to this theory.
First, the urachus cyst does not manifest itself. This does not allow doctors to diagnose it in its early stages.
With the rapid growth of cysts, symptoms begin to appear. For the female, the main manifestation is severe abdominal pain during menstruation.
Also, the cyst is manifested by the following symptoms:
- lower abdominal pain. More often pains of the pulling character. More often they resemble the manifestation of cystitis. When neglected process of pain intensifies,
- urination disorders. For cysts of considerable size are characterized by frequent urging to the toilet or vice versa, the inability to commit urination. Also pay attention to the pain at the time of urination,
- chronic constipation. The bladder is located near the intestines and therefore can cause constipation.
When joining the infection, additional symptoms appear:
- puffiness in the pubic area,
- redness of the skin near the navel,
- temperature rise,
- intoxication syndrome (weakness, malaise, nausea).
It is worth paying attention to these manifestations, as they can be a signal of the presence of such a serious disease.
Symptoms in women and men
In the female and male sex, the anatomical structure of the body is slightly different. Therefore, the manifestations also have differences. Symptoms may occur not only in an adult, but also in a child.
Therefore, you should pay attention to this:
- For newborns can be characterized by long healing of the navel. Sometimes there is swelling and swelling. It appears purulent content, which is caused by the accumulation of feces.
- In the process of development, the cyst changes in size. The cyst presses against the bladder and intestines, which can cause problems with emptying.
- Exposure to the intestines may cause constipation, flatulence, or intestinal obstruction.
- When the process is neglected, fever, weakness and loss of appetite can be observed.
- In the process of urination, hematuria can occur, which indicates bleeding in the bladder.
With such characteristic symptoms, the patient should immediately consult a doctor.
Consequences of the disease
Without proper treatment, the patient’s condition worsens and a severe form of the disease sets in. At this point, the belly grows in size and becomes hard.
There are also abdominal pains. For severe pain attacks, immediate hospitalization and surgery are required.
Many people do not think about this disease and do not even know about it. However, the risk of its occurrence is in every person. At small sizes, the cyst does not give out itself and does not cause inconvenience.
Nevertheless, the consequences of the disease can be serious. If you ignore the problem, pus accumulates in the cavity.
With the accumulation of a large amount of rupture occurs, which leads to the release of pus into the abdominal cavity. Such a condition threatens a person’s life, as there is a high risk of peritonitis.
If the cyst has grown to a significant size, the doctor will be able to detect by palpation. Usually the formation is localized near the navel. It is important for a physician not to confuse a cyst with a hernia, as they have similar manifestations.
To verify the diagnosis, the following research methods are assigned:
- Ultrasound and MRI. Allows you to detect the presence of tumors
- cystoscopy. The cystoscope is inserted into the bladder, which allows to examine its walls and the presence of tumors from the inside,
- cystography. A contrast agent is injected into the bladder. After a certain period of time, radiography is performed.
These methods are very informative and give an accurate result when making a diagnosis.
Timely diagnosis and adequate therapy will help avoid serious complications. A cyst may not give out itself for a long time, people turn to a specialist when serious symptoms appear.
To avoid neglect of the disease, a person should listen to his body and pay attention to even minor changes.
Despite the fact that conservative medicine is developed quite well, the problem cannot be solved with the help of drug therapy. The treatment of such diseases is carried out only by surgery.
During the operation, a cyst is removed in the bladder, and the space in which it was located is cleared. This eliminates infection.
If inflammation is present in the bladder, then before the patient is operated on, drug therapy is prescribed to eliminate the inflammation. After this operation is performed.
The operation itself is sparing as the cyst is excised outside the abdominal cavity. It can even hold newborns.
Sometimes when the process is neglected an abscess appears. Then an emergency operation is required. First, it is necessary to open and drain it, and only then remove the cyst itself.
Thus, you should carefully monitor your health in order to identify the disease in time. If symptoms occur, you should consult a specialist for diagnosis and treatment.
Ignoring the manifestations can provoke the appearance of complications of the disease and even lead to irreversible consequences.