Which of the vaccinations put the newborn in the hospital: a calendar of vaccinations, all - for - and - against
Recently, a lot of questions from future parents cause vaccinations that make a newborn in the hospital. Some couples decide to refuse childhood vaccinations altogether. However, doctors insist on the need for vaccination.
At the maternity hospital, two new vaccinations are given before discharge to the newborn: against tuberculosis (BCG) and hepatitis B.
Vaccination for tuberculosis
Tuberculosis is a common infectious disease caused by various types of mycobacteria. According to the World Health Organization, every second one person becomes infected with tuberculosis and every year 2 million people die from this disease worldwide. Tuberculosis affects everyone regardless of the conditions in which a person lives. This is a very contagious disease that is transmitted mainly by airborne droplets and affects various organs as well as human tissues. Unfortunately, in order to pick up mycobacterium, even direct contact with an infected person is not required. It is for this reason that doctors strongly recommend vaccinating a child while still in the hospital in order to avoid the possibility of his infection after discharge. Without a lack of immunity to mycobacteria, the child is at risk. Therefore it is worth thinking twice before giving up on BCG.
Vaccination of newborns is carried out on the third day after birth. The vaccine is injected intracutaneously on the surface of the left shoulder. Immediately after the introduction of the vaccine, a white-colored papule forms in this place, which disappears in approximately 20 minutes. Within two to three months a small compaction of no more than 1 mm in diameter is formed at the vaccination site, which is finally healed before the end of the first year of life.
BCG vaccination has its own contraindications. Do not vaccinate:
- children who have cases of congenital or acquired immunodeficiency in the family,
- if other children in the family had complications after such a vaccination,
- children with congenital insufficiency of the function of any enzyme,
- children with severe hereditary diseases and perinatal lesions of the central nervous system.
In some cases, vaccination is postponed for a while. Such cases are associated with: infectious processes occurring in the child’s body, hemolytic disease of the newborn, which develops due to the incompatibility of the blood of the mother and the child, prematurity of the child.
It is also important to know about the complications that may occur after BCG vaccination:
- the formation of a painless ulcers at the vaccination site (ulceration of infiltration),
- subcutaneous infiltration due to a vaccine that is too deeply injected,
- the formation of keloid (scar),
- the spread of infection to the lymph nodes.
What vaccinations put children in the hospital?
The first vaccinations that are administered to newborns are from tuberculosis and hepatitis B. There is a vaccination schedule developed by the Ministry of Health, on the basis of which children are given injections with vaccines and develop individual schemes. Pediatric doctors are advised to adhere to this schedule, because it takes into account the peculiarities of the development of children depending on age.
Against Tuberculosis - BCG
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that is easily transmitted by airborne droplets and affects the respiratory and other organs. The most dangerous hidden forms of tuberculosis, when the patient does not realize that he has become a carrier of viruses.
It is important to protect the child, whose immune system can not cope with the disease. There is a BCG vaccine for this. The injection is injected into the baby’s left shoulder intracutaneously, on the third day after birth. After the injection a slight swelling appears, which disappears with time. After a month, only a small wound remains in this place. This is normal, cream and ointment do not need to be applied, everything will pass without help. This reaction indicates the production of antibodies in the body of the baby.
Vaccination against tuberculosis
BCG does not do if:
- Congenital or acquired immunodeficiency is found in a child or parents
- there were complications after immunization of the parents or other family members,
- hereditary diseases or damage to the nervous system during childbirth,
- the kid has purulent infection,
- intrauterine disease
- skin pathologies,
- there is a jump in the baby’s body temperature upwards, which indicates possible inflammations,
- small weight of the baby (less than 2500 g),
- skin lesions (sores, rash).
Against viral hepatitis B
According to the calendar, newborns are vaccinated against hepatitis B in the first 12 hours of life. The baby’s body cannot withstand viral and infectious diseases, so the vaccine is important and vital. The injection is injected into the lateral surface of the thigh. It does not cause an allergic reaction.
Why it is worth vaccinating children against hepatitis B:
- The liver is one of the main organs. With its help, the baby's body is immediately cleared from the mother cells of red blood cells, which have lost their importance.
- Epidemiological nature of the disease. The risk of infection is reduced due to vaccination.
- A vaccinated child with hepatitis C is much faster treated without serious complications than an unvaccinated child.
The disease is not transmitted by airborne droplets, infection occurs through blood or in utero. You can meet the virus anywhere, and the hospital is no exception. The incubation period is 12 weeks, at the initial stage it is impossible to detect the disease.
Contraindications to vaccination:
- child's weight less than 1500 g
- skin disease
- low Apgar score (we recommend reading: Apgar scale for assessing the status of newborns).
Only the complete vaccination cycle will protect the baby from infection. According to the traditional method, the vaccination is done in the first hours of life, then after a month and after six months. If there is a sick person in the family, the child receives 4 doses: at birth, after a month, at two months, and after a year.
Is there a need to vaccinate a child in the first days of life?
Experienced pediatricians advise you to be vaccinated against hepatitis B and tuberculosis in the maternity hospital, since the risk of contracting dangerous diseases exists from the first days of a child's life. When are exceptions possible?
Many mothers vaccinate newborns in the hospital only for tuberculosis, as the disease is easily transmitted. BCG vaccination will be problematic after discharge from the hospital, because the procedure involves many requirements. In conventional vaccination cabinets is difficult to achieve the necessary conditions.
Hepatitis B is infected through blood and sexually, so sometimes parents do not want to give the child this injection in the first days of life and make it later. After birth, many babies have natural jaundice, and after the vaccine is given, complications are possible that lead to serious diseases - cerebral palsy or liver cirrhosis. Careful attention to the well-being of the baby and measurement of bilirubin reduce the risk of complications.
Basic rules for vaccinating a newborn in a maternity hospital
The effects of the first vaccinations often arise from the negligence of medical professionals. To reduce the risk of complications, it is necessary to carefully study the composition of the vaccine and instructions. It is equally important to ensure that the ampoule with the drug is opened immediately before the procedure.
Important points when administering vaccines to newborns:
- The procedure is carried out after examination of the baby by a doctor. The body temperature is checked. The doctor must tell parents about vaccination and the possible consequences.
- Vaccine can choose. If parents want to deliver an imported vaccine of better quality than the clinic provides, they will have to purchase it on their own.
- The vaccine must be properly stored at a temperature of 2 to 8 degrees. This applies to the case when parents themselves buy the drug. To confirm the freshness of the vaccine must provide a check. In the pharmacy and clinic all the rules for storing medicines are observed.
- The procedure is carried out by a nurse in a separate room. Data on vaccination are recorded in the outpatient card of the baby.
Is it possible to refuse mandatory vaccinations?
Russian legislation does not prescribe compulsory vaccination and provides for waivers of vaccinations. Bringing parents to justice for refusal no one will.
It should be borne in mind that in the absence of mandatory vaccinations, if there is a risk of infection with infectious diseases or epidemics, they may refuse:
- in employment,
- stay in health resorts and dispensaries,
- away to some countries
- temporarily - in admission to educational institutions.
Restrictions apply only in case of epidemics. A child without vaccines must be admitted to a preschool institution and school, but during epidemics he will not be able to attend an educational institution. After reducing the risk of infection, he can go to school again. If parents decide to refuse vaccinations, they need to fill out a special form in writing. The application is written by one of the parents in the name of the chief physician.
What if the child was vaccinated without the consent of the mother?
Vaccinations without parental consent are not allowed to be placed in the maternity hospital, or in preschool institutions, or in school. If the mother did not give written consent to the procedure or wrote a waiver of it, and the vaccine was introduced, the doctor can be brought to administrative or criminal liability. To do this, you will have to write a complaint to the prosecutor's office about the institution where you were vaccinated.
When and what vaccinations do newborns in the hospital?
At birth, the baby already in the hospital has experience of social contact with the medical staff. The immune system is not yet formed. This is natural, since immunity, in its essence, is a certain experience of contact with pathogens of diseases, for example, after vaccination, whereby an organism’s response is produced by creating antibodies. After discharge from the maternity hospital, the child will expand his social circle - these will be grandmothers, grandfathers, aunts, and neighbors in the stairwell.
In the maternity hospital, on 1–2 days, the child is vaccinated against tuberculosis and hepatitis B. As a rule, this vaccine is easily tolerated, does not cause adverse reactions, and a slight rise in temperature is possible. Many parents are wondering if a smallpox vaccination is being done now. The current calendar of routine vaccination, this vaccine does not provide for moreover it is not done until the child reaches the age of one.
Hepatitis B vaccine
Vaccination of newborns in the maternity hospital may slightly surprise and even alert the young mother, because it seems that the baby is too small. However, it is a normal practice, the body of the crumbs is strong enough to safely transfer the vaccine. Much more concern is the potential risk of infection after discharge from the hospital.
Hepatitis B is a virus that is transmitted through saliva, blood and the placenta, which affects the liver tissue. A dangerous disease for an immature organism, the risk of infection of which is immediately after discharge from a medical institution, for example, if your baby is kissed by a person who has this virus.
The neonatologist is obliged to inform the young parents about what vaccines are put in the maternity hospital. The first vaccine that is given to a newborn during the first days of life is BCG against tuberculosis, in order to protect against possible infection. The causative agent of the disease (tubercle bacillus) is transmitted by airborne droplets from a sick person to a healthy person. In this case, the slightest contact with the virus particles in the air is sufficient.
Is it necessary to vaccinate a newborn?
Based on the foregoing, vaccinations in the hospital are done solely for the benefit of the baby, the formation of his specific immunity. Early vaccination has several advantages:
- the formation of specific immunity before discharge from the hospital,
- the baby is under constant supervision of the children's doctor and nurses, respectively, the response to vaccination is controlled by specialists,
- a newborn baby sleeps predominantly, the easier it is for his body to resist the causative agent of the disease and form immunity.
There are opponents of early vaccination of children, citing the fact that:
- need to give time to the newborn, in particular, his immune system to get stronger,
- vaccination is not 100% protection against infection.
Despite all the contradictions, the facts speak for themselves. With the advent of vaccination, cases of infection of vaccinated children are extremely rare, or the course of the disease is much easier than among those who are not vaccinated.
Anyway, parents are primarily responsible for the health of their child. Whether to vaccinate or not, each family makes the decision. Doctors can only strongly recommend and inform young parents about all the benefits of vaccination. By law, mother has the right to write a refusal of vaccinations according to her own convictions. In this case, it draws up the relevant documents.
Vaccination of newborns in the maternity hospital, unfortunately, is not always possible due to the lack of a vaccine. No need to rejoice and sigh with relief about this. On the contrary, after discharge from the maternity hospital, some caution should be exercised in order not to encounter the infectious agent until the baby is vaccinated at the polyclinic.
Periodic absence of a vaccine is one of the problems of domestic medicine. She is familiar to many parents who would like to vaccinate their children, but they don’t have the opportunity.
Another question concerns the composition of drugs. Use the so-called inactivated vaccines and containing weakened particles of the virus. With the introduction of an inactivated vaccine, infection occurs "killed by a virus", while the immune system meets with foreign agents, producing antibodies to them. Such a vaccine is usually less likely to cause side effects. Parents have every right to know which vaccine is being used, who is the manufacturer and what adverse reactions may be.
Advantages and disadvantages of vaccination of newborns
Every civilized state takes care of raising healthy children. State programs for routine vaccination are being created, huge funds are spent on this, mass work is being done to inform the population. However, there are those who actively urge parents to write waivers and hope “at random”. Of course, there are pros and cons.
The biggest advantage of early vaccination is the formation of specific immunity against the most dangerous diseases for a newborn baby.
In this case, the first vaccination is done in the maternity hospital only the beginning in the long process of immunization.
Real contraindications for vaccination:
- if the child was born weakened with a low birth weight (less than 2 kg), doctors may decide to postpone the vaccination,
- severe pathologies of the central nervous system,
- acute phase of viral infection
- severe allergic reactions to previously administered drugs.
Some parents are afraid of manifestations of adverse reactions of the post-vaccination period. However, the risk of possible consequences after vaccination is significantly lower than the risks to which an unvaccinated child is exposed.
What explains the need for vaccination in the hospital?
The first vaccine is given to a newborn in the maternity hospital (BCG) during the first hours of life. Why? Based on the foregoing, it is clear that you need to have time to form a specific immunity in a child before he meets with the causative agent of a particular disease, for example, tuberculosis (an extremely dangerous and contagious virus). There are no alternative methods of prophylaxis, vaccination is needed, or completely excluding contact with people who may be carriers of the infection.
If you refuse vaccinations for a newborn baby?
Some parents are concerned about the question of whether to refuse vaccination? Yes. Such a waiver must be made in writing. The application is written by one of the parents (it will be great if both mom and dad sign it), in triplicate. Of these, the mother leaves one for herself, the second remains for the medical institution and another one is pasted into the exchange card of the pregnant woman.
If for some reason (with the exception of real contraindications) a decision is made to refuse, then it is worth thinking about the fact that an unvaccinated child is at risk of becoming infected with a number of dangerous diseases more often than children who have undergone routine immunization.
With the current epidemic of tuberculosis, it is unreasonable not to vaccinate BCG without good reason. It’s hard to say for sure that you don’t have a person with an open form of tuberculosis. В данном случае риски осложнений и постпрививочного синдрома куда меньше, нежели опасность заражения.
Для чего необходима вакцинация
Прежде чем позволить сделать малышу прививку, следует разобраться, для чего необходима вакцинация.
Vaccinations of newborns in the maternity hospital, reviews of which are contradictory, still cause a lot of controversy in society. On the one hand, they undoubtedly protect the baby from serious diseases already from birth, just when the baby’s body is weakened after giving birth. On the other hand, fatal outcomes are known when the children did not cope with the injected drug. But, as doctors say, the vaccine is the only way to avoid epidemics, and the benefits of them are much greater than the risks of complications.
Vaccinations of newborns in the maternity hospital are aimed at producing antibodies in the baby’s body for deadly diseases such as tuberculosis and hepatitis. The World Health Organization has developed a special schedule for vaccination of babies. It takes into account the age of children, their characteristics of development. Experienced doctors recommend sticking to it and putting vaccines in a special time for this.
Do vaccinations for newborns in the hospital
From birth up to the age of one and a half, the baby should receive 9 mandatory vaccinations. All of them protect it from diseases that are fatal. Each vaccine helps the body to develop special cells - antibodies. This does not mean that the vaccine gives 100% guarantee that the baby will never become infected with the disease from which it was vaccinated. But, in any case, he will transfer it much easier and without complications. Is it worth it to vaccinate the crumb, or better to refrain, can only be solved by his parents, who are fully responsible for his health.
Many are interested: "What vaccinations do newborns in the hospital?". In the first 12 hours it is necessary to prick the hepatitis B vaccine. Then a revaccination should be performed in a month. Also, on discharge (from 3 to 7 days), it is necessary to take root against tuberculosis.
It is worth noting that these diseases are common and difficult to treat, so it is better to vaccinate the newborn in the hospital than to bite your elbows, which could not protect your baby from the disease.
Protect your baby from tuberculosis with a BCG vaccination
Why is it important to vaccinate BCG in the first days of a baby's life? It's very simple: mother's immunity against this disease is not transmitted to the baby.
Tuberculosis is a terrible and dangerous disease that affects the lungs, bones and other organs and can eventually lead to disability. It is transmitted by airborne droplets, so direct contact with the patient is not necessary. There are hidden forms of tuberculosis, when a person does not even suspect that he is a carrier of the infection.
Put vaccination in the left shoulder intracutaneously. After the injection, a slight swelling should appear, which disappears after 20-30 minutes. During the month a small wound is formed, which over time may burst. This is absolutely normal, no need to smear the injection site with any drugs. Everything goes by itself.
When to put a vaccine can not
There are cases when vaccinations in the hospital for newborns can not be put. They may be temporary and permanent. In the case of the BCG vaccine, this is:
the presence of HIV infection in a baby or parents
bad reaction to vaccination with close family members,
lesions during labor of the nervous system of the baby,
severe hereditary diseases.
For temporary contraindications include:
Apgar low scale during childbirth,
child's weight less than 2 kilograms,
intrauterine infection during gestation,
violation of the skin (sores, severe rash, severe dermatitis),
the presence of allergic reactions.
In all these cases, the child should not be vaccinated. It is necessary to wait for the complete examination of the baby and the conclusion of the pediatrician.
This is the terrible word "hepatitis"
The first vaccination of a newborn in a maternity hospital is against hepatitis B. Why is it so important if it is given for the important 12 hours of a baby’s life?
This virus is especially dangerous for small crumbs, it affects the liver, which can lead to cirrhosis and even cancer of this organ. To cope with such a serious illness the baby is almost incapable. There are domestic and foreign (paid) vaccines. The latter are completely cleaned. There are almost no allergic reactions. There are rare cases of general malaise, a slight increase in temperature. Make it better in the lateral surface of the thigh.
Contraindications for vaccination
Hepatitis B vaccine does not have permanent contraindications. To temporary include cases when the baby is observed:
insufficient body weight (below 1500 grams),
low Apgar score,
acute illness of the baby,
violation of the integrity of the skin.
As soon as the child's condition improves, the body will get stronger, you can inject this vaccine.
How can I refuse vaccination
Only parents who are fully responsible for the health and life of the baby can answer the question of whether the newborns should be vaccinated in the maternity hospital. It can be noted that all healthy born children were vaccinated before. In our time, necessarily the consent of mom or dad.
After the neonatologist has completely examined the child, and the mother has a little rest from the birth, a nurse comes up to her to get consent for vaccination. It is necessary to sign a paper stating that parents are aware of possible complications.
If you think it is meaningless to vaccinate a newborn in the hospital, your right is to write a waiver. Then a corresponding entry will appear on the baby’s card, and the district pediatrician will have to make an individual schedule of vaccination.
Maybe worth the wait?
Experienced parents advise to put in the maternity hospital only the BCG vaccine, since there is no other protection against tuberculosis. But with hepatitis B, it is advised to wait. After all, it is transmitted only through blood or sexual intercourse. If a child is not threatened with a serious operation, manipulations with blood transfusion and other medical interventions that violate the integrity of the baby’s skin, then you can wait for the immunity of the crumbs to become stronger, for example, at 2 months.
The risk of getting a complication from vaccination is due to the fact that in the first week in almost all children born natural jaundice begins. And when the drug is injected, a complication in the form of conjugation jaundice may begin. This is very serious, if you do not notice elevated bilirubin in time, cerebral palsy or liver cirrhosis can occur.
Therefore, it is better to be safe, and to make a vaccine after all the signs of the yellow one are completely gone (yellowness of the skin and protein in the eyes). But even they can be deceiving. It will be safer to donate blood and check the level of bilirubin.
If the hepatitis B vaccine was not given at the maternity hospital, it can be given in 3 months with DPT with one injection. For example, the Belgian vaccine contains in its composition and this component.
Now, after reading the article, you know what vaccinations for newborns in the hospital need to do. In modern society, you can find opponents of vaccination. Many argue that intervening in the natural processes occurring in the human body is wrong. But it is worth thinking about the fact that terrible pandemics and epidemics people were able to stop only with the help of vaccination of the population.
What are vaccinated in the hospital newborn
There is an erroneous opinion that mother's immunity will fully protect the child after birth. Many people think that during the breastfeeding period it is impossible to get infected by what the mother was vaccinated with at one time. This is not true. Some transferred infectious diseases really leave a durable immunity for life, but only to those who have had this disease.
Important vaccines have been made to the vaccination schedule, each at its proper time. For example, the vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough is made for the first time in 3 months - before this period, the child is still protected from such infections by her mother's helper cells.
What vaccinations do newborns in the hospital? In the first hours of life, doctors are trying to protect the baby from viral hepatitis B. Such an infectious disease in a weakened body can cause, above all, disruption of the digestive and nervous systems.
The second equally important vaccination - the prevention of an infectious disease, which also gives rest to the respiratory system, is practically incurable tuberculosis. An increase in the incidence of this disease has been observed in recent decades, and treatment, in many cases, has been ineffective due to the development of resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antibiotics. BCG vaccination is done at the maternity hospital for 3–5 days after birth, because when you meet with an infected person, the child is not fully protected.
Prevention of hepatitis B in newborns
Most often, the very first injection of a child is a vaccine against infectious viral hepatitis B. Why did the doctors ignore such a disease and decided to vaccinate newly born babies? Is it possible to refuse this vaccination in the maternity hospital? There are many important reasons for the immediate prevention of hepatitis.
- The liver is one of the most important organs of a person. It begins to fully function in the first minutes of life and serves as a cleaning system. Here is the destruction of the already unnecessary "mother's" blood cells - erythrocytes with the formation of bilirubin.
- The first food and taking medicines puts a strain on this body.
- The production of hormones, the absorption of any products also occurs in the liver.
- Even in the maternity hospital, you can meet with a person - carrier of hepatitis B (with a latent form of the disease in close relatives who want to visit the mother and baby, who once had hepatitis B and are not observed).
- The long incubation period of the hepatitis B virus (up to 12 weeks) helps to hide the onset of the disease at the initial stage.
- The rapid spread of hepatitis B virus and its resistance in the external environment are predisposing factors to infection of others.
Therefore, the child is at risk for this disease. Vaccination against hepatitis B is not easily needed by newborns - this is the only way to protect the baby from the disease and its consequences. And since his body is more susceptible to any infection in the first hours of his life, vaccination is carried out immediately after birth. Vaccinate all children, if not contraindicated. This is one of the few vaccines that is well tolerated and proceeds without pronounced reactions.
Where are they vaccinated against hepatitis for newborns? Infants inoculate intramuscularly in the anterior part of the thigh.
It is possible to refuse vaccination, but it is necessary to warn doctors about this in advance, before delivery. In this way, unforeseen situations can be avoided in the case when the mother has undergone a difficult birth, and upon awakening she learned that the child had been vaccinated without her consent. Refusal to issue must be in writing in two copies.
Do I need to be vaccinated against hepatitis B
What are the pros and cons of hepatitis B vaccine for newborns? Why is it worth to instill your baby?
- The incidence of hepatitis in the world is increasing every day. According to the WHO, there are about 2 billion people infected with the hepatitis B virus. And only 350 million of them the disease reaches the stage of pronounced clinical manifestations.
- Only people infected with hepatitis B can become infected with another serious illness - hepatitis D.
- By agreeing to the vaccination, the mother protects the child from severe infection, which gives a complication not only to the digestive system.
- Many are frightened by some false reactions to hepatitis B vaccine in newborns. But yellow skin at 3–5 days after birth is not a complication. This is the usual physiological condition of the newborn, which occurs when mother's hemoglobin disintegrates. It happens in everyone, but in varying degrees, so a contraindication is not, as many people think.
- It is especially necessary to vaccinate the child to those parents who have a person with hepatitis in the family.
What kind of children should not be vaccinated
- Premature babies. In this case, the vaccine is delayed for 2 months.
- Children with high body temperature - to normalize the state.
It is difficult for a baby to track the reaction to the components of the vaccine, since after birth the body reacts to everything. The second hepatitis B vaccine is done in a month. In case of a reaction to it, the following vaccination is contraindicated.
Prevention of tuberculosis in newborns
The list of first vaccinations of newborns in the maternity hospital also includes an important vaccine - BCG. This incomprehensible abbreviation stands for Bacillus Calmette-Gerin (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin), on behalf of the French scientists who created it. The drug protects against infection with tuberculosis. The classic manifestation of the disease is pulmonary tuberculosis. But mycobacteria also infect other equally important systems:
- genitals and kidneys,
- skin and bones, joints,
- central nervous system,
- The lymph nodes,
Vaccination against tuberculosis for newborns is carried out at 3-7 days from the moment of birth. Why in the first week of life of a newborn child to load his immunity?
- The rapid spread of tuberculosis infection throughout the body leads to the development of serious complications.
- Over the past decades due to vaccinations, the incidence has decreased.
- About 25,000 people die from the infection each year.
- In developing countries, the epidemiological situation of tuberculosis is still tense.
Where are they vaccinated against tuberculosis for newborns? This is the border of the upper and middle third of the left shoulder.
BCG is administered strictly intracutaneously. Since the vaccine consists of live, attenuated avirulent (non-contagious) Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it is stored in a separate room under the lock, and the vial unused during the day is destroyed. Therefore, before vaccinating your baby, be sure to take a new ampoule.
The reaction of the body of the newborn to the vaccine against tuberculosis
The body of a newborn child may react differently to the vaccination against tuberculosis infection. And this is one of the most unpleasant moments in vaccination.
When vaccinations against tuberculosis are given to newborns there can be reactions of the following nature.
- Local reaction in the form of a scar. Changes in the injection area occur gradually: tissue inflammation, necrosis, or necrosis, possibly ulceration, which after a few weeks turns into a scar.
- The expressed general reaction at the newborn does not happen. The baby may be sluggish for several days.
- Inflammation of the axillary and cervical lymph nodes.
- Generalized infection, osteitis bones.
- Keloid scar.
Do vaccinations in the hospital? Yes, because no one knows what awaits a baby outside the borders of this medical institution. In favor of the fact that vaccinations are necessary, says a decrease in the incidence in recent years after the start of universal vaccination. Every child has a risk of developing some complications for vaccination. But any of them is incommensurable with the risk of suffering an inflammatory process in the liver, as is the case with hepatitis B, or once infected with tuberculosis and carrying out not always effective multiple courses of therapy. To determine the pros and cons of vaccinations for newborns in the hospital - a few weeks before the birth, you should consult with a knowledgeable specialist and decide the fate of your baby yourself.
Vaccination against tuberculosis
The disease has an infectious etiology and can be caused by various pathogens, therefore it has a very widespread prevalence. According to the WHO, tuberculosis infection occurs at a rate of one person per second, and about two million people die of the disease per year.
Tuberculosis is a contagious disease and the possibility of infection does not depend on the social status of a person and his living conditions. The infection is transmitted by airborne droplets, quickly affecting tissues and organs.
In fact, infection occurs in a contactless way, and this is particularly difficult in preventing the occurrence of tuberculosis in children, since pathogens can get to the baby anywhere and at any time.
It is for this reason that experts insist on carrying out vaccination in the maternity hospital until the baby is discharged, since such a measure allows you to avoid infection when the baby leaves the hospital walls and significantly reduce the risk of possible infection in the future.
Before refusing to carry out this vaccination to a newborn, it is necessary to thoroughly think over and understand what risks, complications and consequences may result in the decision made.
Vaccination is carried out on the third day of the infant's life by injecting the drug subcutaneously into the upper half of the left shoulder. At the injection site, a papule appears immediately, disappearing in half an hour, after which a compaction builds up at the injection site for several months, which becomes covered with a crust.
The final healing takes place around the year of the baby’s life, while a small scar (sore) remains at the vaccination site, which is considered a normal reaction.
But there are also contraindications for vaccination against tuberculosis, these include:
- the presence of congenital or acquired immunodeficiency in the immediate family of the infant,
- наличие осложнений после проведенной вакцинации у ближайших родственников новорожденного или у других детей в роду,
- наличие у рожденного младенца поражений ЦНС или каких-либо тяжелых заболеваний, переданных по наследству,
- наличие у крохи врожденной недостаточности функции фермента.
Бывают и случаи, когда проведение прививки откладывается. The reason for this may be prematurity of the baby or hemolytic disease of the infant, caused by infectious processes or the incompatibility of the blood group of the baby and his mother. Read more about the care and feeding of premature babies →
How to refuse vaccinations
Of course, whether or not to vaccinate your child exactly what parents decide today. But few of them understand that the responsibility for the health of their baby in case of refusal from any vaccination falls entirely on their shoulders.
Often, young mothers, having heard plenty of unflattering feedback from other parents or advice from outside, tend to refuse vaccinations, not understanding what consequences can occur, and not wanting to take responsibility for it.
A few years ago, doctors independently made a decision about whether to vaccinate a baby in the hospital without asking for parental consent, but simply assessing the baby’s condition and the degree of his health.
Today, specialists can not inject a child with a single vaccine without the mandatory written permission of the parents, who, refusing to be vaccinated, often do not even realize the possible consequences.
Many young mothers have recently begun to refuse vaccinations (not only in the maternity hospital) simply because it is considered “fashionable” and a kind of healthy lifestyle, without the use of chemicals, including drugs and injectables.
Refuse vaccinations conducted in the hospital, is easy. After the baby is born and the examination is carried out, if no contraindications are given to the vaccine, the young mother is given forms, filling in which she either agrees to vaccinate her child or refuses the proposed injections. Completed forms must be given to a pediatric nurse.
Sometimes parents are afraid to vaccinate a child at such an early age, wanting the baby to first get a little stronger and get used to the new environment for him. This approach can often be risky, and parents should understand this.
If the baby was not vaccinated in the maternity hospital
In this case, vaccination is carried out in the district children's clinic and start with the introduction of a vaccine against tuberculosis, which in the conditions of the clinic is not easy to do. A bottle of the drug contains 20 doses for injection, and the substance in open form can be stored for an hour.
Since there are very few children not vaccinated immediately after birth, only one day per month is prescribed for vaccination, while BCG is placed separately from other vaccinations. For this reason, babies are invited to vaccinate on a scheduled day at a specific time (only 1 hour for injections for all children), and if you are late, you will have to wait for the next month to administer the vaccine.
In the case of vaccination of a baby under 2 months, only a complete examination of the pediatrician is necessary without a Mantoux reaction and a thorough examination.
But if the baby is older than 60 days, then before vaccination you will definitely need to pass general urine and blood tests, as well as check the Mantoux test. And only in the case of normal indicators of the survey and a negative result of the Mantoux test, the doctor will be able to give direction to the BCG vaccination.
Before you decide to abandon the vaccinations offered at the hospital, you need to think carefully about everything, weighing all the pros and cons, especially if the decision is temporary and you plan to vaccinate the baby in the future.
If the decision to refuse vaccinations is final, parents will need to fill out a special form that will be glued to the child's medical card. But here it is necessary to take into account that an unvaccinated child may not be admitted to kindergarten, to school, he will not be allowed to work out in the sports sections, to visit the pool, to sanatorium-resort treatment and not to be released abroad in most countries.
Author: Vaganova Irina Stanislavovna, doctor
Arguments against vaccinations in a newborn baby
Nevertheless, the number of parents refusing to vaccinate a newborn in the maternity hospital is growing. It is not even about a complete rejection of vaccinations, but about such an early vaccination. Why is this happening?
Vaccination against hepatitis B in newborns causes the most doubt. Firstly, it has been recently added to the list of “mandatory” vaccinations, and, consequently, its effectiveness and possible complications have been studied to a lesser extent. In fact, the test is happening now, in modern children. And while most of us have never been vaccinated against hepatitis B, and, nevertheless, live and live. Secondly, the hepatitis B vaccine is genetically modified, and this fact can not but alarm. Thirdly, the methods of transmission of the disease itself - through the blood or sexually. How likely is a newborn to “catch up” with hepatitis B if his parents are healthy and he does not undergo any surgical operations? And finally, any vaccine (which no one hides, because this is the essence of vaccination) is a small disease in a mild form. And it is doubtful that a newborn, whose liver is still very undeveloped, will be so safe to have a mild form of hepatitis. Many young mothers point out the connection between the vaccination and the prolonged jaundice of the newborn. That is why even many doctors advise parents, if not refuse, then at least to postpone a little with vaccination against hepatitis.
BCG vaccination, on the one hand, is more “time-tested”, but it also raises questions from parents.
A serious argument against BCG vaccination, at least in the maternity hospital, is the existence of a number of post-vaccination complications that are associated with the composition of the vaccine itself. The babies are subcutaneously injected with a live culture of mycobacteria, which can cause phenomena for which even the name “BCGit” exists, or BCG infection.
In the USA, BCG mass vaccination has never been used, as well as in several European countries. Also, many European countries (Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Spain, Italy, France, etc.), who previously used the BCG vaccine, have now abandoned it due to the reduced incidence of tuberculosis and the questionable effectiveness of vaccination. In one of the most "vaccinated" countries - Russia - the incidence over the years does not decrease, but on the contrary, increases. In addition, only some people are susceptible to tuberculosis. Is it worth it to vaccinate everyone, given the likelihood of post-vaccination complications? The question remains open.
Should a newborn be vaccinated in a maternity hospital?
Probably every sane family, expecting a baby, wonders if it is necessary to vaccinate a newborn? Unfortunately, there is no unequivocal answer to it, if only because the opinions of both “for” and “against” are supported by very weighty arguments. The consequences of a possible disease are terrible, the experience of mothers whose children have suffered serious post-vaccination complications looks frightening. Responsibility of parents is colossal.
In general, speaking of vaccinations that make newborns in the hospital, you can notice the main thing: the doctors themselves talk about the importance of vaccination only a healthy child. It is almost impossible to assess whether a newborn baby is completely healthy. Each vaccination is a serious immunobiological operation, which has its own contraindications and possible side effects. Is it possible to vaccinate a newborn in principle? Medicine answers - yes, it is possible, and even necessary, to vaccinate children from really serious diseases, and it is already important to do so in the hospital. Almost all of us were vaccinated with the same BCG vaccine, and the vast majority of modern babies were vaccinated. Vaccine complications are rare. But many parents make a different choice, refusing vaccinations, and do not regret it afterwards.
Deciding whether to vaccinate a newborn should be made on the basis of a serious analysis of information on both vaccination in principle and on specific vaccinations given to children in the maternity hospital. We wish your baby good health, and you - peace and confidence in the correctness of your choice!