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Testicular cancer

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Many men, reaching middle age, can boast that they have never visited a doctor in their entire life. Among the fair sex such cases are much smaller. This is explained by the fact that the genitals in women need constant attention, sexually transmitted diseases affect them much more often. After several years of such trouble-free life, men still decide on a rectal examination, which is often compared with the end of youth. Moreover, the stronger sex, as a rule, does not attach much importance to the visit to the specialist. However, just such a late visit often ends with the fact that a man is diagnosed with quite serious illnesses that require proper treatment. One of these quite dangerous diseases is testicular cancer. Photos of this pathology can be viewed in specialized medical reference books. In more detail about it we will also tell in this article.

Description of the disease

Testicular cancer is a relatively rare disease. The main reasons for this pathology in adult men include cryptorchidism, disorders at the endocrine system level, radiation exposure, mechanical damage to the scrotum.

In cancer statistics, signs of testicular cancer in men are diagnosed in no more than 2% of cases. It is important to note that the disease is aggressive. Among the representatives of the stronger sex younger than 35 years old, this ailment is often the cause of early death.

In a third of cases, the primary symptoms are diagnosed in small boys. In 90% of them the reason lies in the malignancy of a benign tumor - teratoma. She, in turn, appears due to developmental disorders in the prenatal period.

Testicular cancer: causes

Today, the exact reasons for the development of this kind of pathology, as well as other oncological diseases, are unknown. However, experts agree on the main factor provoking the development of the disease - cryptorchidism. This is a special condition in which the testicle does not descend into the scrotum during fetal development or in the first few months of the baby’s life. It simply remains in the so-called inguinal canal or even in the abdominal cavity itself. Most often, oncology is diagnosed in those patients in whom the testicle is located directly in the abdominal cavity.

Who is at risk?

According to experts, if even in childhood a corrective surgery was performed, the testicular cancer in men already in adulthood can still be diagnosed. Among the main progenitor factors that increase the risk of developing this pathology are the following:

  • Hereditary predisposition
  • Infertility.
  • Kleinfelter syndrome (damage to the sex chromosomes at the genetic level).
  • Underdevelopment of the genitals.
  • Inclusion of scar tissue in the testes at the congenital level.
  • Permanent mechanical effect.

Clinical signs

The main symptoms of testicular cancer in men are as follows:

  • slight condensation in the affected area
  • accumulation of fluid in the scrotum,
  • constant discomfort, pain,
  • increase in the usual size of the testicle.

At the onset of the disease, the symptoms of testicular cancer in men are almost completely absent. Then the patient finds in one of them a small seal. The body begins to rapidly increase in size, discomfort and even soreness appear. It is important to note that the malignant tumor itself rarely causes pain. It occurs only after the tumor completely captures the spermatic cord.

At the next stage of the development of pathology, testicular deformity and an increase in their density is observed. Due to the constant accumulation of fluid, the damaged part of the scrotum begins to increase in size. If the testicle does not descend, the tumor can easily be felt directly in the inguinal canal. Otherwise, if it is localized in the abdominal zone, the tumor can grow to a considerable size. There are cases when it occupied about half of the entire cavity.

Further symptoms of testicular cancer in men are associated with the formation of metastases. This is, first of all, shortness of breath, severe pain in the back and groin, a feeling of discomfort in the leg, swelling. All these clinical signs are very easily explained.

For example, back pain is associated with constant compression of the nerve roots by retroperitoneal lymph nodes, which also increase in size. Swelling of the legs occurs due to overlap of metastases of the inferior vena cava. Symptoms of testicular cancer in men can even include manifestations of renal failure. This is due to compression of the ureters by the tumor.

Some forms of this disease entail hormonal changes. In adult patients, they manifest as impotence and decreased libido. Boys in adolescence may develop gynecomastia, hirsutism (excessive body hair growth), voice mutation.

Classification

Testicular tumors can be of two types:

  • Germinogenic (grown from epithelium) - seminoma, teratoblastoma, chorionepithelioma.
  • Non-herminogenic (developed from the main tissues) - leydigoma, sarcoma, sertolioma.

Herminogenic variant of the tumor (seminoma) occurs most often. Seminoma is diagnosed in 50% of men suffering from cancer. This tumor is formed as a compacted nodule. As a rule, it grows rather slowly and is not accompanied by complications in the form of bleeding. Seminoma metastases primarily affect the lungs, lymph nodes and bones.

Stages of cancer

Currently, there are several stages of the disease. Thanks to this separation, doctors have the opportunity to classify testicular cancer in men as accurately as possible, and then to prescribe the appropriate treatment.

  • The first stage. The neoplasm is located in the testicle, does not go beyond it, there are no metastases.
  • Second stage Metastasis of the tumor is localized in the retroperitoneal nodes.
  • The third and fourth stages. Metastases penetrate distant organs and lymph nodes.

Another international classification of the disease, TNM, is known, according to which the main cancer parameters are indicated by a specific letter (T is the characteristic of the tumor itself, N is the description of the lymph nodes, M0 is the absence of metastases, M1 is the presence of distant metastases).

Diagnostics

For the successful treatment of this disease is very important to diagnose it in a timely manner. How to determine testicular cancer?

  1. Physical examination of the patient, including palpation of the scrotum itself.
  2. Laboratory studies (LDH, BHG, AFP). Based on the concentration level of the so-called tumor markers, the doctor assesses the effectiveness of the current treatment, and also predicts the course of the illness.
  3. Scrotal examination with diaphanoscopy. This method implies a scanning of the affected area by a narrow beam of light. The doctor assesses whether it is evenly translucent. If the scrotal tissue practically does not transmit light, we can talk about the presence of a malignant neoplasm.
  4. Radiography of the lungs in order to detect the presence of metastases.
  5. Ultrasound examination of the scrotum, as well as the pelvic organs.
  6. CT scan of the chest and abdomen.
  7. Osteoscintigraphy of skeletal bones.

The final diagnosis is based on the results of the biopsy of the testicular tissue itself. Analysis of the biopsy under a microscope allows you to accurately determine the specific type of tumor, as well as to predict the rate of spread of pathology.

How to independently recognize the disease?

First of all, it is recommended to look at what testicular cancer looks like in men. Photos of the affected organs are available in specialized directories. Thus, if there are any abnormalities, the patient should immediately consult a doctor.

It is important to note that healthy testicles should be approximately the same size, but one always hangs below the other. Otherwise, a man could not put his legs together.

Doctors advise you to examine yourself monthly, and in a warm room. The thing is that in the cold scrotum shrinks quite strongly. Inspection while taking a shower is considered ideal. The testicles should feel like hard boiled chicken eggs, and the size should be about 4 cm in diameter. Bodies should not be ill. Any discomfort during the inspection can be interpreted as a deviation from the norm.

What does testicular cancer look like? Feeling the back upper part of the organ, you can easily find its appendage - a thin cord. Any mass attached to it can be regarded as a neoplasm (most often benign). In any case, if you detect any abnormality, you should immediately consult a doctor. He will prescribe an additional diagnostic examination, and then, if necessary, therapy.

With this disease, it is complex and implies the removal of the tumor focus, the medical resection of the lymph nodes, as well as the systemic chemotherapeutic effect on all atypical cells.

Surgical treatment is the complete removal of the affected area along with the appendage. If during the operation metastases are found in the peritoneal space, retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy is performed.

After surgery, the patient is sent for chemotherapy. It implies the introduction of intravenous injections and the use of special drugs ("Iofosfamid", "Cisplatin", "Vinblastine"), which affects the entire body. Taking into account the fact that cancer cells are characterized by a high level of metabolism, first of all they are directly destroyed.

In some cases, radiation exposure is additionally recommended. For large tumor sizes, this method of treatment is used at the preoperative stage.

The sooner the disease is diagnosed, the more effective the therapy will be and the probability of a positive outcome of the disease will increase significantly. According to experts, timely treatment allows the patient to live five years or more (in 90% of cases). With the appearance of metastases, survival is reduced to 72%.

Causes of testicular cancer

Three age peaks associated with the onset of testicular cancer were identified: in boys under 10 years old, young men from 20 to 40 years old, and the elderly over 60 years old. In children, testicular cancer in 90% of cases develops against the background of the malignancy of embryonic benign teratoma. At older ages, scrotal injuries, endocrine diseases (hypogonadism, gynecomastia, infertility), radiation, etc. can become factors that trigger the development of testicular cancer. The risk of testicular cancer increases with Klinefelter syndrome.

Most often testicular cancer is detected in patients with cryptorchidism - undescended glands in the scrotum. Various forms of cryptorchidism increase the risk of cancer in the undescended testicle 10 times. With unilateral testicular damage, the likelihood of a contralateral gland tumor is also high.

The chances of developing testicular cancer are higher in men whose first-degree relatives (brother, father) had a similar disease. Testicular cancer is 5 times more common in Europeans, especially in Germany and Scandinavia, less often in Asian and African countries.

Symptoms of testicular cancer

The clinic for testicular cancer is made up of local symptoms and manifestations of metastasis. The first sign of testicular cancer is usually the induration of the gland and the appearance of a palpable painless nodule in it. In a quarter of cases there is pain in the affected testicle or scrotum, feeling of heaviness or dull pain in the lower abdomen. The initial symptoms of testicular cancer may resemble acute orchiepididymitis. With the progression of testicular cancer, the scrotum becomes asymmetrically enlarged and edematous. Further development of clinical manifestations is usually associated with metastasis of testicular cancer.

When the nerve roots are compressed by enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes, pain in the back can be noted, and when intestinal compression is present, intestinal obstruction is observed. In case of a blockade of the lymphatic system and the inferior vena cava, lymphostasis and edema of the lower limbs develop. The compression of the ureters may be accompanied by the development of hydronephrosis and renal failure. Metastasis of testicular cancer to mediastinal lymph nodes causes coughing and shortness of breath. With the development of cancer intoxication, nausea, weakness, loss of appetite, cachexia.

Nonherminogenic forms of testicular cancer can initiate dyshormonal manifestations. In these cases, the boys often develop gynecomastia, premature masculinization (hirsutism, mutation of the voice, macrogenitomy, frequent erections). In adults, hormone-active testicular cancer may be accompanied by decreased libido, impotence, and feminization.

Treatment of testicular cancer

The possibility of organ-sparing surgery for testicular cancer is considered in case of bilateral tumor or damage to a single gland. After resection of the testicle, adjuvant radiotherapy is indicated for all patients.

The standard of surgical treatment of testicular cancer is orchiectomy, with retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy, if necessary. The removal of the seminoma tumors of the T1-T2 stages is supplemented by radiation therapy, the appointment of systemic chemotherapy is required for the T3-T4 seminoma stages, as well as for non-seminomic testicular cancer. In the case of bilateral orkhifunikulektomii or low testosterone levels, patients are prescribed hormone replacement therapy.

Comprehensive treatment of testicular cancer (orchiectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy) can lead to temporary or prolonged infertility and impotence. Therefore, patients of fertile age before treatment of testicular cancer are recommended to be examined by an andrologist with an assessment of the level of hormones (testosterone, LH, FSH) and spermograms. If you intend to have children in the future, prior to treatment, the man may resort to cryopreservation of sperm.

Prognosis and prevention of testicular cancer

Multifactorial analysis of the prognosis takes into account the clinical stage of testicular cancer, the histotype of the tumor, the correct and complete complex of the treatment carried out. Thus, at the stages of testicular cancer T1-T2, recovery is possible in 90-95% of patients. The worst prognosis should be expected with angiolymphatic tumor invasion, presence of metastases.

Prevention of testicular cancer is the timely elimination of cryptorchidism, the prevention of injury to the scrotum, the exclusion of genital irradiation. Timely detection of testicular cancer is facilitated by regular self-examination and early access to the urologist-andrologist if any changes are detected.

What are we dealing with?

Testicular cancer is a malignant tumor that can form unpredictably. This tumor appears in the gonad, and can later spread throughout the body. It develops specifically in organs such as the brain and bone marrow, liver, and lungs. According to statistics, most often a malignant tumor of the testicles is found in men aged 15 to 35 years. Diagnosis is performed using diaphanoscopy, scrotal ultrasound and testicular biopsy. During treatment of testicular cancer, the patient undergoes unilateral or bilateral orkhifunikulektomiya, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Prediction of the disease may depend on its stage and histological type. Symptoms of testicular cancer in men will be discussed below.

A type of cancer

Cancers of the testicles are divided into the following classes:

  • A germ cell is formed from the seed of a man and is the most common.
  • A nonherminogenic tumor is formed from the stroma of the testicle.
  • A mixed tumor can contain cells of both of the above types.

Why can testicular cancer develop in men?

Symptoms (photos can be seen in our article) for this disease are present, only they manifest at a late stage. But what is the cause of the pathology?

It is hard to say what exactly can cause testicular cancer, but there are some patterns and factors in the appearance of this terrible disease:

  • Most of the sick are men with tall stature and slim physique.
  • The presence of an immunodeficient virus may increase the risk of a malignant tumor.

  • Often, patients with testicular cancer are people who belong to the white race, while the average African American or Asian suffers from this pathology less than a dozen times.
  • Damage to the scrotum.
  • Endocrine pathology.
  • After exposure to radiation.
  • Oncology transmission is inherited.
  • Congenital underdeveloped testicles.
  • Twisted testicle.
  • Often, oncology is manifested in nicotine-dependent smokers.
  • Also, early puberty can trigger the disease.

What else happens with the disease?

Bleeding of tumor tissue necrosis can also develop, in which case pain can be severely felt, and every tenth man who suffers from testicular cancer complains of it. With the accumulation of metastases in the lymph nodes of the abdominal region, severe pain in the lower back is observed. If the formation of a tumor begins to spread metastases to the bone marrow, this is also accompanied by painful sensations. В тех случаях, когда опухолевые массы оказываются за пределами первоначально заражённого органа, это изменяет состояние больного в целом.This condition is expressed by fever, fatigue, lack of strength. This is how the cancer of the right testicle appears in men. The symptoms of each person may be different.

Some formations in the tissues behave quite aggressively. Such manifestations can be damage to organs such as the lungs, liver, bone marrow, brain, skin, and lymph nodes.

Self-examination

The man himself is able to determine testicular cancer in its first stages. This can be done by ordinary probing. If it began to look somehow different, too hard or soft, swollen, bumpy, changed shape or size. Ailment can make itself felt painful sensations. At the first suspicion of this insidious disease, you should contact a specialist for diagnosis. When a man goes to the clinic in time with his problem, it is much easier to solve it, and if you ignore the suspicious symptoms of the disease, the outcome can be rather disastrous.

We examined the symptoms of testicular cancer in men and deal with the consequences.

How to treat?

We looked at the symptoms of men with testicular cancer. How long do they live? If not treated, then the average life expectancy from 1 year to 3.

Testicular cancer may well respond to therapy, even when the tumor begins to spread metastases. But it is best to consult a doctor immediately if you detect any symptoms of the disease. Delaying the trip to the doctor, you can wait until it is too late to do something with the oncologist. Therefore, the sooner you go to a doctor, the higher the probability of success for a full recovery.

The main method of treatment is surgery. The tissue on which the cancer spreads is removed. After removal of the testicle, the patient undergoes the procedure of radiotherapy (tumor irradiation) or chemotherapy (curing the patient with the support of anticancer drugs). Therefore, it is important to determine testicular epididymis in men. Symptoms will help with this.

Identify the type of cancer

It is possible to begin treatment only after the type of cancer has been determined. The localized form is treatable in most cases. This form is sensitive to radiotherapy. After the time of chemotherapy, most of the tissue lesions gradually disappear in a few months. If, after a while, there are no changes, and the metastases have not disappeared completely, one should undergo a course of radiotherapy or resort to surgical intervention with subsequent removal of the infected organ.

In cases where non-seminomas or mixed testicular cancer are diagnosed in men, radical inguinal orchiectomy and monthly monitoring may be prescribed. Chemotherapy is prescribed in cases where deviations are still shown after analysis. Usually, everything costs the standard chemotherapy procedure, but if it gives insufficient results, then a more intensive treatment regimen is applied and bone marrow autotransplantation is performed. In case a carcinoma is detected in patients after a biopsy, radiotherapy will be prescribed, which will give one hundred percent effect and the patient's recovery.

If signs of testicular cancer are found in men (the symptoms are described above), hospitalization and medical supervision are strongly recommended. Self-treatment for this disease is prohibited and can have serious consequences.

What medications can cure testicular cancer?

Treatment with pills and other medicines prescribed by the doctor, along with the passage of the procedures brings much more benefits. During therapy, take such drugs:

In case of detection of testicular cancer, you should immediately contact such doctors as: oncologist, urologist, oncologist, surgeon, endocrinologist. At the beginning of treatment, the patient undergoes a series of procedures, the main ones being the collection of tissues for subsequent analysis and palpation of the testicles. If it is increased in size and has a seal, then this is an alarming sign. Compaction and swelling in the scrotum makes it necessary to palpate another testicle and other lymph nodes. With difficulty palpation for a more detailed diagnosis, the patient is prescribed ultrasound and diaphanoscopy.

Patient diagnostics can also be performed during surgery. Urgent morphological studies can often be combined with radical inguinal orchiectomy, but not with a cross-core biopsy. The passage of the latter is not recommended, since it has a high risk of local dissemination.

Now that you have enough knowledge, you can prevent a malignant tumor at the first signs of the disease. If at least one of the syndromes occurs, you should immediately consult a doctor. If the disease is really detected, then it is easy to eliminate in the initial stages of development. Timeliness in this case is a guarantee of health!

The article discusses a disease such as testicular cancer in men. Symptoms, treatment, effects are also described.

Statistics

Cancer of the testicles is found only in 1% of all oncological pathologies. Basically, this figure falls on young men. The average age range includes the male population. from 7 to 40 years. Statistics have shown that for this type of cancer there are three peaks of development: at the age of 10 years, from 25 to 40 and later 60 years.

The testicles are a complex organ that includes various tissues that differ in structure and function. Depending on what kind of tissue the neoplasm was formed, they are distinguished two types of tumors: germinogenic and non-herminogenic.

Herminogenic

This type of tumor is most common. This group includes tumors that form in the area vas deferens and yolk sac. Germinogen formations include:

  • seven,
  • embryonic carcinoma,
  • choriocarcinoma,
  • teratome,
  • mixed tumors.

Seminomas occupy 40% of all germ cell tumorsand the rest falls on other types of this type of pathology.

Germentativnye education differ slow current pathological processwhich is well stopped by chemotherapy.

Non-herminogenic

Formations of the non-herminogenic type make up only 3% of the total number of pathologies. It includes tumors localized in genital strom, tumors of the secondary type, mesenchymal, gondoblastoma.

As a rule, this type of pathology is difficult to diagnose in the early stages, due to the lack of independent symptoms. Most often, the disease is accompanied by symptomatology of the pathology that provoked the tumor. For example, if the cause is hormonal imbalance, the tumor will be expressed endocrine symptoms.

The main causes of pathology include:

  1. Genetic predisposition. If the father had such a disease, then the son’s risk of his development can reach 70%.
  2. Atypical development of the testicles, at which their omission does not occur. The testicles remain in the abdominal cavity, where the body temperature is several degrees higher. This leads to the formation of local pathologies, which gradually develop into a benign or malignant tumor.
  3. Testicular traumareceived in childhood. In some cases, injuries lead to a slight deformation of the internal tissues of the body, as a result of which a hidden, slow-moving pathological process is formed, which over time can develop into a tumor.
  4. Endocrine disruption. Hormonal failure affects the functioning of the internal system of the genital organs, which provokes the formation of tumors.

This pathology is characterized by several stages of development, differing intensity of symptoms.

In the first stage, the tumor is localized only in the area of ​​the affected tissue and does not cause the patient anxiety. At this stage of development of the pathology, the man does not feel pain and any discomfort.

Most often, the tumor is detected by chance during examinations in the presence of other pathologies. In isolated cases, small limited surface swelling.

A size change in the ratio of testicles to each other also appears. As the disease develops change in scrotum density.

The second stage is characterized by an increase in the size of education and the formation of metastasis in the area of ​​other tissues, as well as paraaortic and abdominal lymph nodes. The patient begins to feel physical discomfort due to the increase in testicle size.

There are problems with urination, due to the growth of the tumor and pressure on the urethra. Perhaps the appearance of painful feelings of pulling nature, which begin in the retroperitoneal space below the navel and gradually descend into the scrotum.

A feeling appears in the testicles weighting or high tensionwhich does not disappear even at rest.

Characterized by active metastasis in areas remote from the affected organ. The testicles greatly increase in size, often overlapping the initial volume 2-3 times. The scrotum surface acquires dark red or bluish tint. At the same time, there is a pronounced vascular mesh, with a large number of capillary damage.

Simultaneously with the growth of the tumor, there is a gradual loss of sensitivity of the affected organ. In addition to the local signs of the disease, join the intensive general, characteristic of all types of cancer pathologies:

  • lack of appetite,
  • excessive weakness and fatigue,
  • malnutrition
  • imbalance in temperature,
  • weight loss.

Boys disease

The causes of the development of a tumor in childhood are:

  • mother infection with tuberculosis during gestation,
  • history of the stillbirth of children
  • epilepsy pregnant
  • malformations: hypoplasia, atopy or testicular atrophy,
  • atypical position in the retroperitoneal space.

As a rule, in children, the pathology is detected in the early stages of an increase and compaction of part of the scrotum. Symptoms of general intoxication in this case are absent and appear only when dissemination of the pathological process. In puberty, the tumor mostly carries benign character.

For treatment, use the same methods as in adult treatment. The most favorable prognosis in children treated before one year and after 9 years.

Clinical data have shown that with timely treatment, carried out on stage 1 of the disease, complete cure was observed in 97% of patients. Therapy, carried out in the second stage, stopped the pathological process in 85% of patients. In later periods, treatment of a testicular tumor of a malignant nature also has a high recovery rate, which is almost 80%.

Prevention

The main preventive measures include the following:

  • regular self-examination, which must be carried out at least 1 time per month
  • if abnormalities were noticed during the examination, as soon as possible consult a specialist
  • in the presence of pathologies of the body, you need to treat them
  • desirable to refuse from bad habits,
  • in the presence of a hereditary factor should be observed in genetics.

The main part of the patients, after proper treatment, fully recovered. But it was noted that the applied therapy causes numerous complications.

We offer you to share your opinion about this disease and the consequences of its treatment, in the comments to this article.

We recommend to watch the video, in which experts consider the topic raised:

Signs of testicular cancer

At all three periods of time are most dangerous for developing testicular cancer.:

  • babies and children up to 10 years old
  • men from 20 to 40 years,
  • older people after 60 years.

The signs of testicular cancer in each of these groups of men are somewhat different, but the same disease classification:

  • testicular cancer, in which there is no spread of metastases, can be attributed to the first stage,
  • testicular cancer with lymph nodes located behind the peritoneum can be attributed to the second stage,
  • testicular cancer with symptoms suggesting damage to metastases of other lymph nodes and other organs and parts of the body belongs to the third stage.

Causes

Of course this the disease does not occur from scratch. It is preceded by some physiological problems, such as:

  • Cryptorchidism- or the testicle that did not descend. Even with corrective surgery, the risk of cancer remains.
  • Bad heredity - if someone from the family had testicular cancer, by the younger generation it is better to know the symptoms and signs of the disease, since the risk of cancer in relatives is very high.
  • Any injury to the scrotumboth fresh and past.
  • Abnormal development of the testesSomehow inconsistencies with standard sizes and consistency.
  • The overall structure of the body and race - so according to statistics, the majority of diseases were registered among the tall thin Europeans.
  • Reproductive disorders.
  • Genetic diseases or abnormalitiesinherited, such as infertility caused by Klinefelter syndrome.
  • Receiving an increased dose of radiation.
  • At the initial stage of development of testicular cancer, the symptoms and signs of the disease are not too noticeable.

    Those who have hoped to “go away by themselves” to the doctors are already caused by more serious symptoms of testicular cancer in men - severe pain, radiating to the lumbar region and damage to lung metastases, leading to severe coughing and pulmonary bleeding.

    Symptoms of progression

    Symptoms of cancer of the epididymis or just the testicles in men are similar and quite diverse. It:

    • the presence on the testicles dense, but painless areas, either suddenly appearing, or dramatically increasing in size,
    • constant soreness and feeling of heaviness in the scrotumextending to the lower abdomen,
    • constant back painsignaling the spread of metastases by transferring them through blood vessels,
    • painful swelling of the testicle and sometimes quite a large increase in the size of the scrotum,
    • gynecomastia, expressed in the development of female hormones and an increase in the mammary glands (if you suspect such an abnormal behavior of the body, you can use the pregnancy test - it will give a positive result),
    • dramatic weight loss.

    Concept of disease

    Testicular cancer is a malignant tumor process, which is characterized by the unpredictability of the development and growth of pathological cells.

    A tumor is formed and develops directly in the gonads, but soon it begins to spread throughout the body (usually to the cerebral and bone structures, liver and lungs) by hematogenous and lymphogenous pathways.

    According to statistics, a malignant testicular tumor is considered the most common cancer form among men 15-35 years of age.

    Such a cancerous pathology is predominantly unilateral, although there are also bilateral forms of the tumor process (1.5-2%).

    Varieties

    Testicular cancer is classified into mixed, germ cell and non-germ cell tumors.

    • Herminogenic Tumors are formed from seed germinal cell structures and occupy about 95% of cases.
    • Non-herminogenic tumors are formed from the stroma of the testicle.
    • Mixed tumors contain cells of both germ and non-germ formations.

    Photo shows what testicular cancer looks like in men

    In turn, germ cell tumors are divided into:

    Non-germinative lesions are found in less than 5% of cases and are represented by tumors like leydigoma, sertolioma, dysgerminoma.

    Causes of development

    To say for sure what causes the development of testicular cancer is quite difficult. However, there are several patterns and risk factors in the development of such oncology:

    • Often susceptible to testicle are men of high and thin stature,
    • The presence of another testicular tumor in the past,
    • In the presence of immunodeficiency virus, the likelihood of such a cancer increases,
    • Belonging to the white race increases the risk of developing testicular cancer tenfold, and African Americans and Asians suffer from this pathology ten times less often,
    • Cryptorchidism or unresolved testicle,
    • Traumatic injury to the scrotum,
    • Endocrine pathologies,
    • Radiation and radiation exposure
    • Hereditary factors
    • Congenital hypoplasia of the testes,
    • Nevi and birthmarks prone to malignancy can also provoke testicular cancer,
    • Early puberty,
    • In infertile men, the risk of developing testicular cancer increases threefold.
    • Hypodynamia,
    • Regular overheating of the scrotum, etc.,
    • Torsion of the testicles,
    • Nicotine addiction, manifested by daily smoking of a pack of cigarettes for 10 years or more, doubles the likelihood of developing cancer of the gonads in men,
    • Hypospadias - a similar disease associated with an impaired development of the male genital organs, when the exit opening of the urethra opens below the head of the penis or on the scrotum.

    Sometimes testicular malignant oncology develops on the background of Klinefelter or Down syndrome. The professional environment is also important, as men who work in the leather, gas, oil, coal mining and firefighters are more likely to suffer from the pathology.

    Symptoms of testicular cancer in men

    A fundamental manifestation of the malignant tumor process is the appearance in the scrotum tissues of a dense formation, contributing to the increase in the organ.

    Such seals can be both painful and painless.

    Patients complain of pain in the abdomen and scrotum, swelling in the tissues of the testicle.

    At the same time, the scrotum strongly swells and becomes much larger. With the further development of the tumor process, respiratory difficulties and shortness of breath, an increase in lymph nodes, spinal pain, weakness occur.

    The patient feels a noticeable decrease or absence of sexual desire, soreness and enlargement of the mammary glands, intensive growth of hair on the face and body long before the onset of mature development. During tumor metastasis, patients observe a pronounced right-rim soreness, cough and jaundice, shortness of breath, etc.

    With the germination of a tumor in the epididymis, the following symptoms occur:

    • There is a slight painless seal,
    • Organ deformation
    • Testicular enlargement
    • Pain along the spermatic cord and lower abdomen,
    • There may be pain in the back and chest,
    • Scrotal swelling,
    • Swollen lymph nodes
    • Difficulty in breathing.

    Cancer of the epididymis contributes to the development of secondary sexual characteristics and endocrine diseases that can change the appearance of the patient.

    Staging

    Staging of malignant tumors is based on international criteria for the TNM system:

    • T-1 - education does not intersect the boundaries of the tunica,
    • T-2 - the tumor is also limited, but there is already a deformation of the scrotum and an increase in the testicle,
    • T-3 - the tumor penetrates the albuminous membrane, germinating into accessory tissues,
    • T-4 - the tumor process extends beyond the borders of the testicle, germinating in the spermatic cord or scrotal tissue,
    • N-1 - at radiological and radioisotope diagnostics regional metastases to lymph node structures are detected,
    • N-2 - enlarged regional lymph nodes with metastases are easily palpated upon examination,
    • M-1 - in diagnostic studies detected distant metastasis to the liver, lung, cerebral and renal tissues.

    Used in determining the degree of development of testicular cancer and other staging system:

    • I - education is localized within the testicle,
    • II - the tumor process spreads to the lymph nodes of paraaortic value,
    • IIa - lymph nodes with metastases do not exceed 2 cm,
    • IIb - parameters of lymph nodes about 2-5 cm,
    • IIc - the size of the lymph node structures exceed 5 cm,
    • III -0 cervical and thoracic lymph nodes are involved in the tumor process,
    • IV - metastasis extends to distant organs such as bone tissue, brain, liver and lungs.

    Effects

    If testicular cancer in men is detected at an early stage, then 90% of patients have every chance of complete recovery.

    But the statistics is such that most men, when detecting signs of pathology, turn to specialists only after a time when the tumor process moves to more advanced stages. In such a situation, treatment is not always successful and has many consequences.

    If the patient is undergoing orchiectomy, that is, removal of the affected testicle, then for many men this becomes the basis for a serious inferiority complex. From a physiological point of view, the remaining testicle is fully capable of coping with its functions in two.

    The cosmetic problem is completely eliminated by means of correction, when a prosthesis is implanted instead of a removed testicle.

    If the treatment was accompanied by chemotherapeutic or radiation methods of exposure, the probability of complications is very high:

    1. Irradiation of large doses of radiation causes irreversible sterility,
    2. Chemotherapy with Cisplatin develops azoospermia (absence of sperm), which is often eliminated after about 4-5 years,
    3. Antineoplastic drugs like Ifosfamide and Cisplatin lead to toxic kidney damage,
    4. All chemotherapy drugs are dangerous for bone marrow structures.

    In addition, chemotherapy and radiation, as a rule, are accompanied by nausea-vomiting syndrome, hair loss, etc. If a man pulls with treatment, the cancer progresses rapidly, metastasizes, disrupts the work of all organs and leads to death.

    How to determine testicular cancer?

    To identify testicular cancer, you should contact a specialist who will properly perform the scrotum palpation and general examination.

    Sometimes already at this stage, it is possible to suspect the presence of a malignant tumor, which is most often characterized by density and painlessness.

    In parallel, lymph node locations of the inguinal, supraclavicular, and abdominal locations are being investigated.

    After conducting a medical examination of the patient is sent for diagnostic studies:

    • Ultrasound diagnosis. Such a study allows to determine the tumor process with almost one hundred percent accuracy,
    • MRI and computed tomography. These studies have a similar ultrasound purpose, however, they are more informative, but their cost is much higher,
    • Osteoscintigraphy. This technique allows to clarify the presence of metastases,
    • Identification of specific tumor markers,
    • Morphological diagnosis of tumor fragments. Such a study is usually carried out after the removal of the affected testicle, since if the integrity of the tumor is not damaged, the risk of local metastasis is high.

    Based on the diagnostic results, the most optimal therapy is selected.

    Oncomarkers

    Analysis of the detection of tumor markers in testicular cancer is invaluable. Tumor markers are specific substances produced by malignant tumors.

    Depending on their level, the degree of development of the tumor process is determined. In laboratory studies of blood usually pay attention to the level of such tumor markers as AFP (α-fetoprotein), LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) and hCG (β-subunit of human choriogonadotropin).

    Normal indicators of these substances are:

    1. ACE - less than 15 ng / ml,
    2. LDH - less than 2000 U / l,
    3. HCG - less than 5 mU / ml

    ACE is increased in 70% of patients with testicular cancer. The value of LDH in the study is low, however, if the level of lactate dehydrogenase rises above 2000 U / l, then this is a direct sign of the tumor process. HCG increases in 10% of patients with seminoma, in 25% - with a yolk sac tumor, in 60% - with embryonic carcinoma, and in 100% - with testicular chorionic carcinoma.

    Such a study is very useful for diagnostic purposes, determining staging, choice of therapy and monitoring the response to the treatment being carried out.

    Disease treatment and prognosis

    Therapy for testicular cancer is based on the traditional surgical approach, chemotherapy and radiation exposure.

    Surgical treatment usually involves an orchidunectomy, i.e., surgical removal of the testicle affected by the tumor process. Sometimes such an operation is complemented by removal of lymph node structures (retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy).

    After surgical treatment, radiation and chemotherapy are also prescribed. The success of therapy is influenced by several factors:

    • The prognosis for such oncology is positive only with early detection of cancer, when the survival rate is about 90%,
    • If it is detected at stage 2-3 with active metastasis, complete cure is impossible, however, the 5-year survival rate reaches 50%,
    • If a man plans paternity in the future, then before the start of therapy it is recommended to carry out cryopreservation of seed material, the benefit of which modern technologies allow.

    Testicular cancer - the main symptoms:

    • Weakness
    • Temperature changes
    • Lower abdominal pain
    • Loss of appetite
    • Fast fatiguability
    • Decreased libido
    • Pain in the scrotum
    • Weakness of the stream when urinating
    • Overweight hair
    • Breast augmentation
    • Decreased skin sensitivity at the site of injury.
    • Scrotal induration
    • Resizable testicle
    • Testicular swelling
    • Feeling of heaviness in the scrotum
    • Change the texture of the egg tissue

    Male testicles are male genital organs located at the bottom of the scrotum and are responsible for sperm formation and testosterone production. In the epididymis, the spermatozoa ripen and through them also enter the deferent duct. If we talk about testicular cancer, then - this is a neoplasm of oncological nature, which unpredictably develops and is characterized by the spread of cancer cells throughout the body through the lymph flow and bloodstream.

    Symptoms and stages

    There are three stages of the disease. At the first stage, the process is localized within the affected testicle, and testicular cancer symptoms are practically absent, therefore in this case the probability of recovery of the patient is 98%, because metastases have not yet manifested and began to spread.

    Since testicular cancer is characterized by a rapid course, the formation of metastases and damage to the lymph nodes located near the second stage already occurs. In this case, the chances of survival of the patient is 50%. And at the third stage, when metastases are already spreading through the body, the probability of death is almost 100%.

    In this pathology, like testicular cancer, tumor-like deformity is located directly in the tissue of the organ, and not next to it. Symptoms of testicular cancer in men may be as follows:

    • on the testicle there is a seal that does not hurt and has a clear localization,
    • swelling in the area of ​​the affected testicle may occur,
    • the size of the testicles and their location (one relative to the other),
    • changing the texture of the fabric, which can be compacted or, on the contrary, soften,
    • tactile sensitivity is lost,
    • there is a decrease in urine flow due to increased pressure on the urinary canal,
    • there is a feeling of tension in the scrotum,
    • the man feels a pulling pain in the lower abdomen, which radiates to the scrotum.

    These are the main signs of testicular cancer, but there are additional ones. In particular, men with this pathology may complain of a decrease in sexual activity, growth of the mammary glands, increased body hair on the body and face.

    Standard symptoms of testicular cancer, characteristic of all pathological processes, including cancer, include general weakness and fatigue, temperature imbalance, loss of appetite. Note that the symptoms of testicular cancer in men depend both on the location of the tumor, and on the general state of the body - in some they manifest themselves clearly, and in others they may be subtle.

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